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Sea at a greater depth than in the open culiarity of Temperature, either in the Ocean; and, if so, what is the greatest Ocean or in Inland Seas, will prove to depth at which they there exist. This be explicable by attention to these conquestion has obviously a most important ditions, - the degree of seclusion of the bearing on the interpretation of many area from the Polar flow, and the lowest Geological phenomena; for if the limita- winter temperature of the surface. Thus, tion of the depth of living reef-builders in the Celebez Sea, the depth of which be really thermometric, instead of bathy- has lately been found by Captain Chimmetric, so that where secluded from the mo to be nearly 2700 fathoms, the botGeneral Oceanic Circulation they can tom temperature was found to be 38 1-2°; grow up from a greater depth than in the whilst at a less depth in the Indian Oceanic area, it is obvious that such a Ocean, a little to the west of Sumatra, a limitation cannot be rightly assumed in bottom-temperature of 32° was met with. regard to the Coral Growths of former A glance at the Map will show that whilst Epochs.

the latter station is in the direct course

of the bottom-flow of Antarctic water It is curious to see how, in another towards the Equator, this flow could only place, an inflow of colder water, at a reach the former by going a long way limited depth, modifies the temperature round. of an Inland Sea. Between the north- The peculiarities of Inland Seas in reeastern portion of Borneo and Mindanao gard to Temperature seem to have a (the southernmost of the Philippine much more potent influence on Animal group) there is an area, called the Sulu life than would at first be apparent. I Sea, which is really far more completely went to the Mediterranean with the full enclosed than appears on the Map; for expectation of finding its depths tenanted the islands that lie at intervals between by the like varied and abundant Fauna its two principal boundaries are so con- that we had met with at corresponding nected by intervening reefs, which do not depths in the Atlantic; and considering rise to the surface, that this Sulu Sea has that the existence of this Sea can be clearonly a very superficial and limited com- ly traced back through the whole Tertiamunication with either the China Sea, or ry period, I expected to find in this fauna the Celebez Sea. Notwithstanding this the like representation of the early Terenclosure, its depth is very great, reach- tiaries, that the fauna of the deep Atlantic ing to 1600 fathoms; and its Témpera- had shown of the Cretaceous. What, ture-phenomena present the same re- then, was my disappointment at finding markable contrast with the China Sea the dredge come up, time after time, from outside, as do those of the Mediterranean depths ranging between 300 and 1500 with the Atlantic. For the surface-tem- fathoms, laden with a barren mud; the "petature of both being nearly the same most careful examination of which re(83° and 84°), and the reduction to 50° vealed not a single living organism, and being shown at nearly the same depth only a few fragments of dead shells and (about 300 fathoms), the temperature of corals, large enough to be recognizable the Sulu Sea from that plane to the bot- as such, which had obviously drifted from tom remains uniform, whilst that of the some other locality. The idea of the China Sea continues to descend, until 37° nearly azoic condition of the deeper part is reached at 670 fathoms, below which it of the Mediterranean, to which I was undergoes little further reduction, even thus led, having been confirmed by the to a depth of 1550 fathoms. That the results of Oscar Schmidt's dredgings in uniform temperature of the Sulu Sea the Adriatic, the question arises, to from about 300 fathoms downwards to what is this condition due ? I was in the 1600, is lower than that of the Mediter- first instance disposed to attribute it to ranean by about four or five degrees, not- the turbid condition of the bottom-water, withstanding that it is so much nearer the which is charged (as I was able to Equator that its surface-temperature prove by observation) with extremely must be considerably higher all through fine sedimentary particles, whose slow the year, is obviously due to the admis- settling-down forms the mud of the botsion of outside-water, which has been tom. These seem to be chiefly derived, cooled by the Polar flow, through passages in the Eastern basin, from the Nile ; and between its bounding reefs and islands ; in the Western basin, from the Rhone: and we might fix the probable depth of the coarser particles in each case settling those passages at about 250 fathoms. down near the mouths of those rivers,

It seems probable that every local pe-'whilst the finer are diffused through the

whole mass of Mediterranean water, grav- and 40; even this large proportion of itating very slowly to the depths of its Carbonic Acid not appearing prejudicial basin.

to the life of the Marine Invertebrata, so It may be interesting to note, that it is long as Oxygen was present in sufficient to this diffusion, -experimentally proved proportion. on the large scale by the admixture of The rationale of both these conditions mud with the saline deposit of the boil- seems obviously the same; - namely, ers of steam-ships voyaging in the Medi- that in consequence of the uniformity of terranean, and on the small by Professor Temperature of the whole mass of MedTyndall's electric-light test, – that the pa- iterranean water below the surface-straculiar blueness of the waters of the Medi- tum of 200 fathoms (which alone will be terranean is due. The case is precisely disturbed by Wind, or be affected by the paralleled by that of the Lake of Geneva, influx of Rivers and of the Gibraltar curthrough which the Upper Rhone flows, rent), there is no Thermal Circulation ; depositing near its entrance the coarser the whole contents of the deeper part of particles of sediment, and diffusing the this immense basin being thus in an absefiner through the entire waters of the lutely stagnant condition. If the doclake, to which they impart a correspond-trine of a Vertical Oceanic Circulation ing blueness.

be true, every drop of Ocean-water is It is well known that a muddy state of brought in its turn to the surface, where the bottom-water is unfavourable to the it can get rid of its Carbonic Acid, and presence of Animal life; and it has been take in a fresh supply of Oxygen. But particularly noted by Dana, that where as the density of the surface-stratum of such a sediment brought down by a cur- the Mediterranean is never rendered rent is diffused over a part of a bed of greater by reduction of Temperature, than living Coral, it kills the animals of that that of the mass of water it overlies, there part. Moreover, I learned at Malta that is no agency capable of producing any inin the beds which yield the extremely terchange; the bottom-water charged fine-grained stone which is used for deli- with the slowly-gravitating sediment is cate carvings, scarcely any fossils are never disturbed ; and the Organic matter found save sharks' teeth ; whilst in the contained in that sediment consumes its coarse-grained beds of the same forma- Oxygen so much more rapidly than it can tion, fossils are abundant; and as the be supplied from above by diffusion former may be regarded as the product of through the vast column of superincuma slow deposit in the deep sea, so may the bent water, that nearly the whole of it is latter be considered as shore-beds. "Fur- converted into Carbonic Acid, scarcely ther, I have been informed by Professor any being left for the support of Animal Duncan, that in the Fleisch of the Alps, Life. which shows in some parts a thickness of These considerations, then, seem fully several thousand feet, and which is com- adequate to account for the paucity of Life posed of a very fine sedimentary material, in the deeper part of the Mediterranean there is an almost entire absence of Or- basin; and they will, of course, equally ganic remains.

apply to the case of any other Inland Sea, There is, however, another condition so far as the same conditions apply. And of the bottom-water of the Mediterranean, it is not a little interesting to find that which is not less unfavourable than its my old friend and fellow-student Edward turbidity - probably yet more so — to the Forbes was perfectly correct as to the existence of Animal life in its depths ; limitation of Animal Life - so far as renamely, the deficiency of Oxygen produced gards the Ægean Sea, in which his own hy the slow decomposition of the organic researches were prosecuted — to a depth matter brought down by its great rivers. of about 300 fathoms; the error, which According to the determination which I was rather that of others than his own, made in my second visit to the Mediter- being in the supposition that this limitaranean in 1871, the gases boiled-off from tion applies equally to the great Oceanwater brought up from great depths con- basins, past as well as present. The retained only about 5 per cent. of Oxygen searches in which it has been my priviand 35 per cent. of Nitrogen, the remain- lege to bear a part, have shown that as ing 60 per cent. being Carbonic Acid. regards the latter there is probably no Now in gases boiled-off from the deep Bathymetrical limit to Animal Life ; water of the Atlantic, the average per- I while the results of my inquiries into the centage of Oxygen was about 20, while influence of the Physical Conditions of that of Carbonic Acid was between 30 the Mediterranean in limiting the bathy

metrical diffusion of its Fauna, will not, , Owing to its situation, that port escaped I ventu re to hope, be without their use the worst extremities of the prevailing in Geological Theory.

scarcity; but still its streets were haunted W. B. CARPENTER. by men, women, and children in the last

stage of emaciation from hunger. As the traveller advanced inland, however, the evidences of the sufferings of the popula

tion became more numerous and appalling. From The Pall Mall Gazette.

At Kazeroon, between Bushire and ShiTHE CONDITION OF PERSIA.

raz, Mr. Brittlebank was witness of a scene SOME interesting information respect the description of which, as illustrating ing the internal condition of Persia in the state of the country we may perhaps be the early part of last year is furnished by permitted to quote :-“The morning afthe narrative of Mr. Brittlebank's travels ter our arrival a crowd of emaciated natives in that country. Mr. Brittlebank left poured into the yard of the station. Some Southampton on January 4, and landing sat on their heels, some propped themat Ceylon passed rapidly thence to Ma- selves up against the wall, others lay dras, and so on to Bombay. There he wearily at full length on the ground. embarked for the Persian Gulf, and call. They numbered in all — men, women, ing by the way at Kurrachee, Muscat, and children - a couple of hundred. Bundér Abbas, and Linga, reached Bu- They were all in rags or more than halfshire on the morning of March 28, having naked, and the effluvium from them was thus accomplished this circuitous journey so fætid that, although standing on the in less than three months by a full week. top of the station, about twelve or fourOn the way Mr. Brittlebank tells us that teen yards off, I could scarcely bear it. every one acquainted with Persia with They were of all ages; but their sufferwhom he came in contact attempted to ings seemed to have told most on the dissuade him from his purpose. They children. The girls. looked like hags, represented to him that the country was the boys like aged dwarfs. Two or three suffering in the agonies of a most fearful Persian ‘gholams '- men who, when the famine, that its society was disorganized, telegraphic communication is interrupted, and its Government without power to go down the line until they discover the afford protection ; that consequently, place at fault - stood at the gate in order even if he should be fortunate enough to that the very poor and starving might escape pestilence and the hand of vio-alone enter. I could not make out what lence, he would yet be unable to obtain test they applied to discriminate between the accomodation necessary to complete the famished and half-famished, but I his journey. Mr. Brittlebank's courage, noticed that they rejected very miserable however, was not to be shaken, and the looking women who supplicated for adresult proved that the picture thus drawn mission. Another “gholam’assisted the beforehand of the perils he would have Armenian in distributing the dates, the to encounter was overwrought. Though form in which the relief was given. When the state of Persia was in an extreme de- the dates were brought in, every device gree deplorable, outward order was tol- was resorted to in order to obtain a double erably well preserved, and so far from Gov- supply; and the crowd sometimes became ernment being without power, every per- so wild that the trays on which the fruit was son in authority was obeyed with the most placed were upset, and what might in truth slavish submissiveness. Nor was there be termed a life-and-death fight was fought anywhere, even where the roadside was over it. The distribution over, the undotted with the bodies of those dead of happy beings got back as they best could hunger, an attempt made to procure food to their hovels to pine and suffer, susby force, or to molest the foreign travel- tained only by the hope of a future dole ler. A youth fresh from Eton, he passed at the station.” The traveller was, howfrom Bushire to the coast of the Caspian ever, only now entering upon the real Sea, attended through the most distressed famine region. Up to Shiraz he found provinces by only a single native servant, no serious difficulty in obtaining horses, yet he was never once molested. But but at that town he was unable to buy a though the warnings he received were single beast likely to live, and was forced, thus exaggerated, respecting the horrors therefore, to travel thenceforwards on of the famine there was no exaggeration. hired horses, and even these were little His first walk through Bushire was more than skin and bone from want of sufficient to satisfy him on that point. I food. Corpses by the wayside, black and

swollen, now became more and more fre- | kinds of birds really celebrate festivities quent on each successive day. Just be very closely approaching to our wedding fore reaching Ispahan, on riding into a fêtes, balls, and garden parties, in places caravanserai one night, "a faint gust of carefully decorated and arranged by the wind brought with it the smells of a birds for the purpose of social gathercharnel-house. On looking round I no- ings, and which are not used for their acticed a woman lying on her face. She tual dwelling-places. The best evidence, was dead and perfectly naked, the few says Mr. Darwin, of a taste for the beaugarments which she was accustomed to tiful" is afforded by the three genera of wear having been taken by some other Australian bower-birds.” “ Their bowpoor creature starving in the chilly night. ers where the sexes congregate and play Out of the sockets of her eyes and mouth strange antics”[? at all stranger than our a black and noisome fluid was oozing, and waltzes and quadrilles) “are differently the side of her face and breast were constructed ; but what most concerns us gnawed away. Two famished-looking is that they are decorated in a different men and a woman were seated a few yards manner by the different species. The off glaring at the body with wolfish eyes. satin bower-bird collects gaily-coloured A horrible suspicion seized me. . . I articles, such as the blue tail-feathers of would not believe, and yet I could not parrakeets, bleached bones and shells, doubt it, so hungry and ravenous were which it sticks between the twigs, or artheir looks. Passing them, and stepping ranges at the entrance. Mr. Gould over two more dead bodies, I came to found in one bower a neatly-worked the stable on the right side of the yard. stone tomahawk and a slip of blue cotI entered it, and after waiting till my eyes ton, evidently procured from a native enbecame accustomed to the darkness, dis- campment. These objects are contincovered on the one side the dead body of ually rearranged and carried about by a man, and on the other side, close to the birds while at play. The bower of the wall, a woman and a child. The wo- the spotted bower-bird is beautifully man was dead, the child just breathed. lined with tall grasses, so disposed that I hastened with it into the air, hoping the heads nearly meet, and the decorathat life might still be preserved in it. It tions are very profuse. Round stones was too late.” From Ispahan to the cap- are used to keep the grass-stems in their ital the suffering seemed, if possible, to proper places, and to make divergent grow more intense and universal. But paths leading to the bower. The stones once Teheran was passed, although there and shells are often brought from a great was still distress, it did not present the distance. The regent-bird, as described terrible form witnessed amid the barren by Mr. Ramsay, ornaments its short bormountains and sandy salt plains of the er with bleached land-shells belonging to centre of the kingdom.

five or six species, and 'with berries of various colours, blue, red, and black, which give it, when fresh, a very pretty appearance. Besides these, there were

several newly-picked leaves and young

From The Spectator. shoots of a pinkish colour, the whole THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS OF BIRDS. showing a decided taste for the beauti

The Popular Science Review for July ful.' Well may Mr. Gould say, 'these contains some interesting but too brief highly-decorated halls of assembly must remarks by Mr. Leith Adams on the be regarded as the most wonderful in“Mental Powers of Birds,” which it is stances of bird architecture yet discovinteresting to define specifically as dis- ered;' and the taste, we see, of the sertinguished from the mental powers of eral species certainly differs." You other animals of the higher order of sa-. could not have distincter evidence in a gacity. This we will briefly do. First, lady's salon carefully decorated with it would appear from Mr. Darwin's dis- flowers, either of her taste for the beaucussions — though Mr. Leith Adams tiful, or of the deliberate subordination hardly refers to them, - that none of the of that taste to social purposes, than we lower orders of creatures have so keen have here of the same qualities in birds. an appreciation of beauty as many kinds Mr. Leith Adams in his paper hardly reof birds, and certainly that none turn fers, as we have already observed, to this taste for beauty so deliberately to this remarkable class of facts at all only the purpose of social amusement. That pointing out that the obvious preference great naturalist has described how some for gaily-coloured plumage on the part of


the females clearly implies a genuine range for the first time, having been pretaste for the beautiful in birds, which is, viously accustomed only to the fowlingof course, true, but is not nearly as piece,' and kept just outside the two good evidence of a distinct intellectual thousand yards' range, whatever development on this point, as the elabo- range it was, retaining their composure rate decoration of their bowers by birds perfectly at that distance. We suppose for festive purposes. The mere prefer- the wonderful accuracy of the travelling ence for gay colours may be unconscious birds in striking, the exact point for and purely instinctive, but when a bird which they are bound, of which Mr. looks out for bleached land-shells and Leith Adams gives us wonderful illustratall grasses to ornament its reception tions, is a still greater proof of the same room, and fetches round stones to "fix" power. Mr. Adams tells us of swifts which, the grasses in their proper place, and after eight months' absence in the South, then uses the hall thus provided only for at a distance of some 1,800 or 1,900 festive social purposes, you can hardly miles, - return not merely to the same redeny such birds either the powers or the gion, but to the same nests, which they tastes of landscape gardeners and ball had deserted, and that, too, year after year, givers. And we fancy this kind of de- - the individuals having been marked so liberate taste for the beautiful, and the that there could be no mistake as to their beautiful in subordination to social pur- identity, unless indeed there be such poses, is confined among the lower ani- creatures as “ claimants” to abandoned imals to birds; and as regards the social nests even in the ornithological world. purposes, to a very few orders of birds. Again, the delicate adaptation of the A great many birds seem to have more power of geometrical measurement to appreciation of beauty of colour than al- the welfare of its species, seems to be most any other class of animals, but shown by the weaver-bird of India, only in a few species has it risen to the which hangs its “elaborately-constructed, point of a really decorative social art. purse-shaped nest" "from the tops of We may gather from this that in the branches overhanging deep wells,” in orbird the perception of harmony is of a der to render it particularly difficult for very high kind, and this evidently applies enemies to get at the nest without runto sound as well as colour. No crea- ning a great risk of falling into the well. tures utter sounds so full of beauty, or display such wonderful qualifications for imitating the beautiful sounds they hear. Must we not say, then, that the bird has, in more force than any other species of

From Land and Water. the lower animals, the perception of har- HIPPOPOTAMI FIGHTING IN THE 200mony in forms, colours, and sounds, and

LOGICAL GARDENS. the further consciousness of the fascina- By the kindness of Mr. Bartlett, I have tion such harmony has for its own spe- had the good fortune to be present on the cies, and the enhancement it lends to occasion when the little Hippopotamus, social enjoyments.

Guy Fawkes – who is now eight months Another great mental quality which old - was introduced to his disagreeable birds seem to have in excess of other old father, Obesh, a resident in the garanimals, is a very fine calculation of dis- dens for twenty-three years. Obesh was tance, and this, too, in direct subordina- quietly munching his breakfast of grass tion to their own well-being. It has in the outside den, when at a given sigbeen shown again and again, — and Mr. nal the portcullis of the mother's den was Leith Adams refers to some facts in sup- gradually raised, and the two heads apport of it in this essay, that as new peared gazing out with a most comical weapons of offence are invented many expression. Seeing his wife, the old man species of birds narrowly observe the left off munching his grass, grinned a range of the new bows or guns, and ghastly grin, and he loudly trumpeted keep out of range, not even troubling “Umph,” “Umph," "Umph.” themselves to go at all farther than is Little Guy Fawkes then came forward necessary to be out of range. Quite re- from behind his mother, with the action cently we have read, though we cannot and stiffness of a pointer when he has verify the reference at present, of some discovered a covey of birds : gradually birds which adapted themselves within a and slowly he went up to his father, and few days to the increased range of the their outstretched noses were just touchrifle, directly after they had learned its' ing, when the old woman sounded the

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