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other conclusion, for these Acts are a man lay education, and with their minds negation of every claim which the Romish full of German philosophy, German hisChurch makes in its dealings with the tory, and German literature. No enactState. The Prussian priest will be nom- ment could possibly run more counter to inally uncontrolled in his spiritual func- the whole spirit and teaching of modern tions, but the state will interfere with him Ultramontanism. at every turn, and will exercise over him When the priest has been properly a ceaseless control. The details of these trained in this way, the time will arrive Acts are well worth studying, for it is for him to be inducted into some spiritual only by reading their provisions that we office. His superior who proposes to can understand how severe is the pres- appoint him must immediately give notice sure which the State is to exercise. of his intention to the President of the From the first moment when his prepara- province, and a similar notice must be tion for his sacred office begins the State given if it is proposed to transfer a priest takes the priest in hand; it sees that he from one spiritual office to another, or if is educated properly, sanctions the exer- merely a temporary occupant of the office cise of his functions, removes him if he is to be appointed. Within thirty days offends against secular law, restrains his the President may object to the appointaction towards his fellows, and allows ment on the ground that the nominee has him to enforce none but spiritual penal- not received a proper education, and does ties against the laity. Certain provisions not know philosophy, history, and literaare made in favour of those who are ture as well as a good priest ought to already priests, or who are on the point know them, or that the nominee has been of becoming priests; but, for the future, convicted of, or is being prosecuted for, the new system of control will be rigidly an offence against secular law; or, lastly, applied. In the first place, none but a on the ground that he is a dangerous German or a naturalized foreigner is to person, and not inclined to render due exercise spiritual functions in Prussia ; obedience to the State. Against this and the German who exercises them injunction of the provincial President the must be a German educated in a particu- ecclesiastical superior is permitted to lar way. He must first duly pass through a appeal to a new ecclesiastical tribunal gymnasium ; he must then go through a constituted by one of these Acts, the three years' course of theological study, ei- character of which tribunal is sufficiently ther in a State University or in a seminary indicated by the provision that six out of under State control; and, lastly, he must its eleven members must be ordinary lay satisfactorily pass a public oral examina-judges. But the State has another dantion conducted by State officials, the ob- ger to guard against besides that of the ject of which is to show that he possesses wrong man being put into the place. what the Act terms the knowledge pecu- There is the danger lest the place should liarly necessary for his calling that is, remain unfilled. The Act therefore prothe knowledge of philosophy, history, and vides that within a year from the date of German literature. No new seminaries the vacancy the place must be filled up. are to be established; students in the If it is not filled up, the income attached Universities are not to be allowed to be to the office is stopped, the income of the long at the same time to seminaries; and superior who ought to appoint is stopped, it is only if he lives in a place where and the superior is subjected to a fine there is no State University that a student not exceeding one thousand thalers, may go to a seminary at all; while every which fine is to be repeated until his teacher in a seminary must show that he contumacy is vanquished. The priest has received an education satisfactory ac- himself also who ventures to take an cording to a lay standard. Nor will the appointment without due permission, or priests in future be permitted to get hold temporarily performs the duties of a of the young and give them a special and ap- charge which the State requires to be propriate training. Existing seminaries permanently filled, is to be liable to a for boys are not to be closed at once, but fine not exceeding one hundred thalers. then they are not to be allowed to receive Further, if the priest, after having been any new pupils; and, if they venture to appointed, is guilty of any serious transreceive any, they are to be immediately gression of the secular law — as, for shut up. The Act, in fact, recognizes example, if he makes himself a party to that there must be priests, and that any movement which the State considers priests must learn theology; but it insists prejudicial to its interests — he is by the that priests shall be Germans with a Ger- | mere fact of his conviction rendered incapable of discharging his spiritual up any penitentiary he pleases, and can duties; and if he persists in acting as if punish with a fine not exceeding a thouhe were still competent, he becomes lia- sand thalers any attempt to establish a ble to a heavy fine. All these enactments more rigorous discipline than the Act must be put together in order to see how permits. If the delinquent thinks himgreat is the change which the position of self unjustly treated, he can appeal to the priests in Prussia will undergo. To us | new ecclesiastical Court, and especial who are accustomed to live among clergy- care is taken to provide that one ground men who have received the usual English of this appeal shall be that an attempt education at large schools, who have then has been made to prevent his appealing. gone to an English University and takenj The State, too, can itself appeal, or rather the same degrees as their friends des- can carry the case before the ecclesiastitined for lay professions, it may seem cal tribunal, if it thinks, that the continunatural and right that what we know and ance in office of a priest is dangerous to approve of in England should be insisted public order. The previous Act had proon in Prussia. It is one of the great vided that a priest convicted of an offence boasts of the Church of England that its against public order should be deposed; ministers are in this way brought into but this Act goes further, and provides harmony with the laity, share the same that a priest who is merely considered to thoughts, and are animated by the same be a dangerous person may have proceedpolitical instincts. But the Church ofjings taken against him. His own eccleRome wishes for something totally differ-siastical superiors are to be first invited ent. It wishes for a priesthood forming to take upon themselves the responsibila caste distinct from the laity, trained in ity of deposing him ; but, if they decline, its own peculiar way, and breathing its the authority of the tribunal is to be own peculiar spirit. In Prussia it will called into play; and if, after it pronot have any such priesthood; and the nounces against him, he presumes to dispriesthood which it gets will not only be charge the duties of his office, he is liable trained in what it thinks a wrong way, to a fine not exceeding a hundred thalers, but will be subjected to a supervision it which is to be increased to a thousand abhors, and will be constantly suspected thalers if he persists in his offence. The of acts which are as meritorious in the laity are protected by an Act, which proeyes of Rome as they are treasonable in vides that no ecclesiastical punishment the judgment of Berlin.

can be inflicted affecting their personal But the jealous watchfulness of the liberty, their property, or their civil staState is carried still further. A properly tus. Nor can any ecclesiastical punishtrained priest guilty of no offence against ment be inflicted if its ground is that the the State might still, in the exercise of offender has done something which the his spiritual functions, be inclined to ty- State requires him to do, or has voted or rannize over other priests or over lay- not voted where the State permitted him men. Two other Acts tie him up as tight a free choice. For purely spiritual ofas Acts can tie him, lest he should trans- fences a spiritual penalty may be inflicted; gress in this direction. The discipline but then no public notification of its inof the Church over ecclesiastics can only fiction may be made, and all that may be be exercised by German ecclesiastical done is to announce to members of the authorities. Punishment can only be in- same communion that it has been inflictflicted after proceedings have been taken ed; and even then this announcement in a formal manner, after the accused has must be made in language which cannot been heard, and after the grounds of con- convey any unnecessary pain to the ofdemnation have been duly recorded. No fender. The spiritual terrors of excomcorporal punishment is to be inflicted,munication thus remain ; but every prethe delinquent can only be fined to the caution is taken that, in this world at least, extent of a month's salary, and although they shall operate in the mildest possible he may be sent to a penitentiary for three manner. If it is the duty of a State to months, he cannot be sent out of Germany. protect its subjects against their spiritual And his detention must be immediately pastors and masters, every one must alnotified with the most precise details to low that Prussia has now fulfilled this the provincial President, who can shut duty as it was never fulfilled before.

Fifth Series,
Valore III.


No. 1518. - July 12, 1873.


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· 128


(An Unpublished Poem. ]

Across the kirkyard path I go;
The air is delicate and sweet;

Thou art too hard for me in Love, Yet, somehow, as I pass, the blood There is no dealing wth Thee in that Art: Subdues its fervour and its heat,

That is Thy Master-peece I see For there's a grave beside the tower,

When I contrive and plott to prove And there are pansies at my feet.

Something that may be conquest on my part,

Thou still O Lord outstrippest mee.
A little grave, cut off from all,
On which the rounding shadow falls;

Sometimes, when as I wash, I say
Close guarded by a willow tree,

And shrodely, as I think, Lord wash my soule, From whose green core the shilfa calls; More spotted then my Flesh can bee. And where, when summer eve is low,

But then there comes into my way
The mavis pipes sweet madrigals. Thy ancient baptism wch when I was foule

And knew it not, yet cleansèd mee.
It was a brief, mysterious life —
Her life, whom late we buried here;

I took a time when Thou didst sleep
It saw the promise of the spring,

Great waves of trouble combating my brest : But not the harvest of the year;

I thought it braue to praise Thee then, The sweet head drooped beneath the sun, Yet then I found that Thou didst creep Ere yet the sun had turned it sere. Into my hart wth ioye, giving more rest

Than flesh did Lend Thee, back agen. A spirit entered at our door, In fairest vestiments of clay;

Let mee but once the conquest have The lamp was lit, the board was spread,

Vpon ye matter, 'twill Thy conquest prove : And we entreated it to stay;

If Thou subdue mortalitie, But, voiceless as the phantom came,

Thou dost no more than doth ye graue : So voicelessly it passed away.

Whereas if I orecome Thee and Thy Love
· Hell, Death and Divel come short of mee.

GEO. HERBEKT. It knew us not — we knew it not;

How could we hope to penetrate
The robe of perfect silence which

Upon its limbs unwrinkled sate —
The robe whose borders caught the sheen

That glows beneath the folded gate ?

THE Day is spent, and hath his will on mee : Weak words were ours — vague forms of

I and ye Sunn haue runn our races. thought,

I went ye slower, yet more paces,
Which wrestled with the striving sense;

Ffor I decay, not hee.
Her solemn eyes looked straight in ours —
The pure lids raised in fair suspense;

Lord, make my Loss vp, and sett mee free

That I who cannot now by day Our language was the speech of flesh;

Look on his daring brightnes, may And hers the angel's reticence.

Shine then more bright then hee.

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From Fraser's Magazine. LECTURES ON MR. DARWIN'S PHILOSO- dynasty of Locke and Hume. During

to a desperate attempt to restore the old PHY OF LANGUAGE.

the years immediately preceding the pub

lication of Darwin's Origin of Species SECOND LECTURE,

(1860) and his Descent of Man, the old DELIVERED AT THE ROYAL INSTITUTION,

problems which had been discussed in MARCH 29, 1873.

the days of Berkeley, Hume, and Kant, If we want to understand the history turned up again in full force. We had to of the Norman Conquest, the Reforma- read again that sensuous impressions tion, the French Revolution, or any other were the sole constituent elements of the great crisis in the political, religious, and human intellect; that general ideas were social state of the world, we know that all developed spontaneously from single we must study the history of the times impressions ; that the only difference immediately preceding those momentous between sensations and ideas was the changes. Nor shall we ever understand faintness of the latter; that what we the real character of a great philosophical mean by substance is only a collection of crisis unless we have made ourselves particular ideas, united by imagination, thoroughly familiar with its antecedents. and comprehended by a particular name; Without going so far as Hegel, who saw and that what we are pleased to call our in the whole history of philosophy an un

mind, is but a delusion, though who the broken dialectic evolution, it is easy to deluder is and who the deluded, would see that there certainly is a greater con

seem to be a question too indiscreet to tinuity in the history of philosophic ask. thought than in the history of politics, But the principal assault in this strugand it therefore seemed to me essential gle came from a new quarter. It was not to dwell in my first Lecture on the exact to be the old battle over again, we were stage which the philosophical struggle of told; but the fight was to be carried on our century had reached before Mr. Dar- with modern and irresistible weapons. win's publications appeared, in order to The new philosophy, priding itself, as all enable us to appreciate fully his historical philosophies have done, on its positive position, not only as an eminent physiolo- character, professed to despise the endgist, but as the restorer of that great em- less argumentations of the schools, and pire in the world of thought which claims to appeal for evidence to matter of fact as its founders the glorious names of only. Our mind, whether consisting of Locke and Hume. It might indeed be material impressions or intellectual consaid of Mr. Darwin what was once said of cepts, was now to be submitted to the the restorer of another empire, “ Il n'est dissecting knife and the microscope. We pas parvenu, il est arrivé.” The philo- were shown the nervous tubes, afferent sophical empire of Locke and Hume had and efferent, through which shocks from fallen under the blows of Kant's Criticism without pass on to sensitive and motive of pure Reason. But the successors of cells ; the commissural tubes holding Kant - Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel –

- these cells together were laid bare before disregarding the checks by which Kant us ; the exact place in the brain was had so carefully defined the legitimate pointed out where the messages from exercise of the rights of Pure Reason, without were delivered ; and it seemed indulged in such fights of transcendent as if nothing were wanting but a more fancy, that a reaction became inevitable. powerful lens to enable us to see with First came the violent protest of Scho- our own eyes how, in the workshop of penhauer, and his exhortation to return to the brain, as in a photographic apparatus, the old fundamental principles of Kant's the pictures of the senses and the ideas philosophy. These, owing to their very

of the intellect were being turned out in violence, passed unheeded. Then fol- endless variety. lowed a complete disorganization of phi

* Hume, Treatise on Human Nature, book i. sec. losophic thought, and this led in the end 1 i. p. 33.

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