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box, or bureau, or desk, which the dear hereafter. At any rate, as I write of the hand will open no more, contains them. past I had better substitute - was " for There they are. To you has been con- is." fided the trust to dispose of them, and As a collector and adaptor of things I you must go through with it. Things are never knew Dan's equal. His “shop, there belonging to a past generation, as he called it, a den he built for himself, which show the difficulty of your task. leading out of the harness-room, was a He had not had the heart to destroy them, sight to see. Take a carpenter's, a chenwhen he stood as you stand now. They ist's, a blacksmith's, a cobbler's, and a are strange to you — put them aside and marine-store dealer's shop. Mix well examine the rest. What is this bundle together ; shuffle and cut ; throw in a fex tied with what was once a scarlet riband, books, garnish with diagrams in chalk, and marked " to be laid on my heart”? and plates out of the Illustrated Londos It contains your mother's love letters, and News, and you may faintly realize Dan's she has “ gone before.” Here is a broken surroundings. His speciality was maktoy, marked“ poor Charles " -- the brother ing things out of something else, and you never saw. Here is that wonderful always having that something else handy effusion, about which you (a poet of thir- in his store. The heaps of apparent teen) got so teased. Well, he was proud rubbish he kept and added to day by day of it. Your famous treatise in the “Quar- were appalling! The wildest conjecture terly," is not there, but this doggerel, could not anticipate an use for one article and your school-boy correspondence, are out of a hundred; but the time would stored amongst the things, with notes, surely come when something would get and marks, and signs of loving interest. out of order, or be broken, or lost, or You recalled in these moments many an what not; and then Dan would scratch act of folly that may have given pain ; his square head, look intensely stupid for many an omission to do what might have a minute or two, and then march straight given pleasure, and there are spots upon for his "shop,” saying that he thought he the things which were not there before. he had “summut as 'ud do;” and “do
Hitherto I have dealt with people who it did. accumulated things, if not exactly against A little stream ran at the bottom of their will, at any rate, without premedita- the garden. Out of the sherry cask Dan tion. What is gathered and stored with made a water-wheel ; with an old gun malice prepense, are not "things” in that and some straightened horse-shoes he sense of the word, which is, I hope, familiar made a pump which it worked. He by this time, with the reader. Therefore, pieced together a lot of old lead piping, I have nothing to say about monomaniacs and not only sent water up into the house, who collect postage-stamps and mono- but made a fountain on the lawn! He grams; about gentlemen who affect pri- constructed a sun-dial out of a broken vate museums, and sometimes think more pillar and an old copper stew-pan. He of their mahogany cases and cabinets, mended the church clock with Heaven and of the neatly-written tickets which knows what heterodox material. The mark the objects within, than of those harness never wore out. The gig was objects themselves ; or of ladies of the always spick and span. His employer Toodles' species, who infest auctions, did not know what a carpenter's bill was. and buy anything that goes cheap. i The cows, the pigs, and the poultry pass these by with a wave of the pen, and throve and multipled. He was the “vet come to DAN.
of three parishes, which accounts for the Dan is not the opposite to Bathsheba, rows of bottles and the unholy apparatus but a man a short stumpy man, with a which, with a stuffed owl and sundry square head and a stolid expression of dried skins of vermin, gave a cabalistic countenance, which might lead the un- character to his den. wary to think him a stupid. Any specu- His den was Dan's pride. His confilator who invested in Dan as a stupid dence in its resources was unlimited. would make a bad transaction. Dan is He scorned new materials. In his spare Jack (and master) of all trades, and a time he would straighten out old nails, philosopher to boot. “Is ” ! I first knew re-turn old screws — "get things handy," him when I was a boy — no matter how as he said ---smoking his pipe gravely many years ago - He was factotum to the while, and coming out now and then the father of a schoolfellow whom I “knew with those observations which entitled at home,” and Dan was no chicken then. him to consideration as a philosopher, He may have gone to the land of the 'but are out of place here.
I fear that the race of handy men, like or simply reproductions of the normal Dan, is well nigh extinct. He was “odd face of the artist's contemporaries, indiboy's about the place when my friend's vidualized in some measure by the more father married. He had been in that or less successful introduction of tradiservice twenty-five years when I first met tional traits, it is equally clear that the him. The idea of going away to “better type they represent is not the type of the himself” was, I believe, the only one that Elgin Marbles. And the Greek face, as did not enter Dan's angular cranium. it exists now, is like the type of the hisHe was not perfect. I regret to say that torical busts and is not like the type once in a while he got exceedingly drunk. of the Elgin Marbles, though some travHis master was rather a quick-tempered ellers profess to have found the latter man, and time after time discharged him still general round Misitra. If what we on the spot – but he never went. may call the Phidian type ceased to be
Where are you now, oh, ambidexterous general from, let us say, 450 B.C. onwards, Dan? Is that honest clever right hand we may ask, Was it ever general before ? of yours with the dust, or is it still busy Perhaps this is not improbable ; the limamongst your things ? Ah, no! How its of individual variation are much wider time flies ! Twelve years ago I met the among a civilized race such as the Greeks "little Milly” of the days I write of, a had then become, than among a ruder grown-up young lady. The three gallant race, where individuals differ only in the soldier boys, her brothers, are all gone. degree of perfection with which they Has the grim Reaper spared you, Dan ? conform to a common type. This sugAnyhow you are too old to work, and the gests the further questions, Whether amazing problem — what has become of there was a general type which preceded your things — is too maddening to be the Phidian, and if so, whether we have entertained.
any means for determining what it was ? A. DE F. Twenty years'ago Mr. Scharf, in the
account of Greek art which he prefixed to the third edition of “ Wordsworth's Greece," remarked that a cat-like ar
rangement of the eyes was one of the From The Portfolio.
common characteristics of all archaic THE GREEK FACE BEFORE PHIDIAS.
Greek art, and the astounding sarcophaWe are too apt to think of the Greeks gus from the Castellani Collection gives as if during the whole period from Homer a new interest to such inquiries. At to Polybius, not to say from Homer to first sight it seems a very startling hyAgathias, the full spirit of the manifold pothesis that the Greeks could ever have works that they have bequeathed to us been like that strange couple, with their had been poured out upon every genera- short great toes, and hollow chests, and tion. We never try to think what the retreating foreheads, with the whole face life of the contemporaries of Alcæus or converging to the mouth: it is startling Theognis was like upon the whole. We to think that there have ever been such only use Alcæus and Theognis as data men at all, and that if they ever lived for determining the constituents of what they must have lived little, if any more, we call “the Greek spirit,” which was than twenty-five centuries ago. the spirit of no Greek generation, of no are to assume that the rate at which it is Greek city, not even of the Athens of possible for the prevailing type of face to Pericles, but rather the glorified ghost of change is absolutely fixed, we shall put all.
the Castellani sarcophagus out of court One of the minor results of this as- altogether; we shall say it is impossible sumption, which we all make more or that the artist can have been representless unconsciously, is that we suppose, ing what he saw: either he was incompeor think and speak as if we supposed, tent or he was not serious. But it is certhat the Greeks in general were like the tain that the rate is anything but fixed : Elgin Marbles. We know, of course, the contrast between the first sitter of from the personalities of Plato's Dia- Kneller and the st sitter of Reynolds is logues, and from the more or less authen- decidedly less than the contrast between tic portraits of the celebrated Greeks of the first sitter of Lawrence and the last the historical age, that this type was not sitter of Millais ; and both are dwarfed permanent; for whether we suppose that by the contrast between the first sitter of the archetypes of the busts which had Lawrence and the last sitter of Reynolds; come down to us were genuine portraits, and this again by the contrast between
the sitters of Vandyke and the sitters of head and the nose, and Assyrian art for Kneller. And if we go back a century the fact that the Assyrian eyebrows met from Vandyke to Holbein, we find a still there across a permanent wrinkle, why greater divergence of type between the should we distrust both when they agree two extremes; while the well-marked that the eyes pointed more or less upElizabethan type which comes between is ward towards the back of the head ? sharply distinguished from both. And Further presumptions of the same orthis is what we really ought to expect ; der might be accumulated almost without the rate of change among men's habits limit
, but perhaps these are enough to and institutions is liable to the most sur- justify us in returning to the Castellani prising variations, and these, like their sarcophagus seriously, and exami.ing it cast of countenance, are really the ex- without prejudice. Two things strike pression of their thoughts, and feelings, us at once, and dispose us in its favour: and wishes. We know that between 550 one is, that though the work be very and 450 B.C. the Greeks went through feeble and ignorant, it has a look of the most complete and thorough mental painstaking veracity about it - if it were transformation on record, and we ought not so startling we should call it lifelike; not to be startled by evidence which the other is more important. In the points to corresponding physical modifi- Homeric poems we discern a strong and cations of an unusually rapid kind. unmistakable sense of human beauty,
Still it may be objected that the cat- an evident delight in the contrast belike arrangement of the eyes is too ger-tween smooth cheeks, and glossy tresses, eral a characteristic of early art to be and bright rolling eyes. Now these are significant in any single instance. It just the elements of beauty which are would require very full technical knowl- present in the Castellani sarcophagus, for edge to dispose exhaustively of what this the wide orbits imply a great play of the objection implies, and to pronounce with eyeball within them. certainty how far, if at all, the mere in- And what do the retreating brow and experience of the hand and the eye would the upward slope of the orbits imply? tend to force a type upon artists which They imply simply this, that the movethere was nothing in their models to ments of the jaw are the most important suggest. In default of such knowledge movements of the face ; that instead of it may be observed, that if inexperience being fixed at an angle to the cheek-bone, were the only cause, we should expect, the upper jaw moves freely in a line with cæteris paribus, to find this arrangement it; or rather, that the motion of the most marked in the earliest and rudest whole head, often if not generally a downwork. Now there is mediæval work ward motion, adapted to large masses of without the peculiarity which is much food in comparatively fixed positions, has ruder than Oriental work with the pecu- not yet been superseded by the motion liarity: and there is typical mediæval of the lower jaw, adapted to small and work, like the Chessmen from the He-manageable morsels presented in variabride's in the British Museum, in which ble positions by the hand; or, to put the it would be paradoxical to trace any same thing in another form, the position strong Romanic influence. Then, too, we of the upper jaw has not yet been modifind the peculiarity much more marked fied by the frequent upward movements in the bust of Thothmes III., a king of of the lower and by its diminished size. the eighteenth dynasty, than in the statue In this connexion it is significant to obof Mentu Hetp, an officer of the eleventh ; serve that the Rakshasas, savages idealwhile in the two great white busts of ized into devils, who always appear in Rameses II. in the centre of the Egyptian Hindoo legends with their jaws buried in Gallery at the British Museum it disap- carcasses, are to be recognized, accordpears altogether. Again it is less marked ing to popular belief, by the upward slant in the Man-headed Bulls and gigantic of their eyes when they appear in human statues from Nimroud than in the metope form. Now in Buddhist art -- and all from Selinus of Athene and Perseus ; Indian art begins among the non-Aryan and though it may be said that the races which Buddha evangelized - this Assyrian work shows more feeling for upward slant is always distinctly traceaartistic dignity than the Greek, it can ble. hardly be said that it shows more artistic It is to be observed further that the knowledge. Again, if we trust Egyptian cheek-bone might have retained the posiart for the fact that the Egyptians had no tion which it had inevitably in days when perceptible depression between the fore- men were still coarse feeders, even after
this cause had ceased to operate, unless the modifications which would be due to other causes had come in to modify it. So the special development of the lips and that the question comes to be partly, When eyes are already established, but somedid the Greeks come to feed themselves thing of the old lie of the face still redecently with their hands, and what oth- mains, which has completely disappeared er causes carried the transformation up in the works of the Phidian period. to a point which neither the Egyptians This suggests the further question, nor the Assyrians reached ? Now it is Was there any special cause tending to obvious that the movement of the eye increase the plasticity of the organism would tend to modify the orbit, if the lat- that continued to work with increasing ter be not assumed to have become abso- intensity up to the Phidian period ? There lutely rigid. Again, when the action of certainly were two: one was the accelerthe lips in speaking and singing became ating intellectual movement; the other, more important than their action in swal- perhaps even a more decisive one, was lowing, this would modify not only the the universal gymnastic training. Thelips themselves, but also their position in ognis, who "flourished” 540 B.C., knows relation to the cheek. Still more de- nothing of gymnastics as a part of educacisive wonld be the growth of the brain, tion, though he is full of the opportunities pushing the forehead upward and for a man has of forming himself at drinkingward, * and forcing the whole skull to clubs. Pindar, less than two generations modify itself to meet the changed centre later, is full of athletics, as if they were of gravity in the upper part of the head. the business of life. The fact is, the
The Homeric Greeks were certainly ascendancy of Sparta brought all Greece not fine feeders ; their habitual food was to the festivals held under Spartan procollops of half-burnt meat, served on tection at Delphi and Olympia, and then spits, whence one fears they were pulled set all Greece training for them; and the off with the teeth, and barley pillaus enthusiasm thus created survived the (that rarely attained the dignity of dough- undivided Spartan ascendancy for more cakes; baking, as Mr. Davies has pointed than a generation, with the most fruitful out in “ Hermathena," No. 1, was un- consequences. known), which must have been consumed To resume. Unless on anatomical either by raising the bowl to the mouth, grounds it can be determined à priori or by gradually gobbling up, a fistfull; that the limits of possible modification while the bread, which had become the within historical times are insignificant, staff of life in the historical period, was it is far from improbable that we can still so hard that it had to be soaked in water, trace in the rude remains of archaic Greek and therefore was probably eaten in small Art a transformation of the Greek face mouthfuls, that were raised genteelly corresponding to the transformation between the finger and the thumb. which we know took place in the Greek Again, the Homeric Greeks used to be mind. sung to at their feasts by an harper; the
G. A. SIMCOX. Historic Greeks sing themselves to the sound of a piper ; and one of the chief advantages which they expect from a drinking-bout is that it will set them talk
From Macmillan's Magazine. ing. As we have had occasion to observe already, the Homeric Greeks were re
A JATRA. markable for the mobility of their eyes,
On the north bank of the sacred Nerand this explains a peculiarity of the budda, about twenty miles from the mouth, vases of the transition period : although there is a little village called Bhadbhut, the permanent lines of the face still which, with the exception of one month converge on the mouth, the eye points in every eighteen years, exists in the abruptly upward as often as downward ; quiet placid way natural to Hindu vilobviously this would be so if the habitual lages. The houses are of mud ; there is position of the eye in the orbit was vari- no bazar, and the only substantial buildable, while the orbit was not yet modified ing in the place is the white temple overby its movement. A later stage of the looking the river. No one of higher autransition we are imagining may be thority lives here than the village patels, traced in the Æginetan Marbles; there who can scarcely read or write, and the
village accountant, who does those offices The brain of the Macedonian race must have been for them; and their only subordinates comparatively undeveloped, accordingly the retreating brow reappears on the coins of Alexander's successors. are a few Bhiis, who act as village watch
men, and are distinguished from their more artistic representations of scenes non-official brethren only by the bows from holy legends, with Krishna often as and arrows they carry. But as that partic- the central figure, are also to be sees. ular month approaches the village begins But the great sight of all is to see how to grow, and by the time the new moon many people are doing nothing at all. is visible it is a town. There is a bazar, The hum of voices goes on all night, and broad and long, lined with the shops of even an hour or two before dawn: in grain-sellers, and cloth-sellers, and spice- every quieter spot a firmament of glowing sellers, and sweetmeat sellers, and bra- cigarettes shows how many are unwilling ziers ; there is street after street of new to waste these precious hours in sleep. houses ; on the shore there is a perfect The ordinary pilgrim's attendance at fleet of boats, each with its one short the temple is very brief. The crowd pour mast, supporting a mighty sweeping yard in at one door and out at another immethree times the length of itself, and new diately. To continue passing through boats arriving can hardly make their way and through, from the calling of the god among the swarms of bathers.
in the morning till the terrible voice The explanation of the change is that which is supposed to send him to sleep the Jatra has begun. A year composed at sunset, is a work of merit. Near the of lunar months, like that of the Hindu temple sit the holy mendicants and ascet. calendar, is very rickety, and continually ics, almost naked, smeared all over with wants patching; and it is prescribed that mud, wearing their hair and beard uncut, when the month Bhadarava's turn to be and looking altogether perfectly hideous intercalated comes — which happens in and perfectly self-satisfied. Some of eighteen years then for the space of them are very distinguished - as he who the second Bhadarava a Jatra is to be has come down from Benares, measuring held at Bhadbhut. Now the most ex- the whole distance with his prostrate traordinary thing about a Jatra is the ab- body; and he who lies all day on a plank sence of anything extraordinary. That studded with nails points upwards; and so many people should come so far to see he who has held his hand up in the air so little, that they should be so happy in for twenty-five years, till the finger-aails doing nothing, and take so much trouble have grown so long that he appears to be about it is really surprising.
holding up a bunch of snakes, and the The belief that there is particular vir- muscles of the arm perfectly rigid. This tue in bathing in the Nerbudda at this wretched man will consent to bring his particular time and place partly accounts hand down again (he says he would have for the assemblage, but what have holy to soak the muscles in oil for three weeks pilgrims to do with merry-go-rounds, in order to do so) if any one will feast for which are as crowded as the temple ? him three thousand Brahmans. and what means the roaring trade in Truly there is not much that is pleasbrass and copper pots ? But it is neither ing in a Jatra — childish amusements and religion nor traffic that brings all these miserably corrupt superstition. Still, people together; thousands come only Anglo-Saxons at least must admire that for the fun of the thing, and what the fun hundreds of thousands of persons are is, is the greatest puzzle to a European. content to take their holiday where no There are the merry-go-rounds, certainly ; liquor is allowed to be sold, and that nor are they confined to youth : a full- great as are the crowds, there is no quargrown man will mount a small green relling, and helpless and unprotected as wooden horse, and ride as if his only ob- the people are, scarcely any crime. ject in life were to catch the yellow one in front of him ; and old men who are past such severe equestrian conflicts will still take a seat in the cars that travel an inner and more sober circuit. Dancing
From The Sunday Magazine.
CUSTOMS OF MADAGASCAR. and singing and story-telling, go on too. Nautches are not to be seen, but there is The form of government in Madagasa simple amateur dance, accompanied car was, and we may say is, patriarchal. with the voice. Legs and lungs qualify The unit, or simple element, is the famany one to take part. Violent music, ily; and just as the father is the ruler of proceeding from a tent may induce a few his children and dependants, so in a vilthousands to pay a small fee to go inside lage the head man, along with the elders and see two or three wooden figures mak- or old men, exercised the duties of mag. ing foolish bows. Less sensational, but | istrates. The king, again, was the great