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of merchant vessels; huge piles of drift- and reach them by means of a raft, when wood, once stately trees on the side of they disappeared in the fog, lost to sight, some Siberian river, now stranded on though not to memory, and they all perthe Arctic coast, and the little tunnels ished !” The whaling boats are in reqwith which the sea-worms had perforated uisition, and the shoals of seals multiply, it in every direction tenantless, for the as the schooner sails northward under wood-borers cannot live in the tempera- the never-setting sun, amid a scene of siture of the awful Arctic seas. The wild lent desolation, and frequently muffled in duck and the white fox have the island to dense fog, awfully insignificant, alien, themselves, and beyond it lies the true and alone. Suddenly they are “beset commencement of the west ice, the surge with ice," and find themselves contemof the heavy sea breaking upon the outer plating an aspect of nature “such as the edge of the huge floating masses, and the painter might imagine, or the poet, with illimitable distance laden with heavy his lying license might invent, or the imblocks, interspersed with flat snow. agination of a sleeper could fancy in Surely here is the end of all things, and dreams of night.” A great storm is no ship can ever get beyond this beauti- blowing over the unfrozen sea far away, ful barrier, this spray-sprinkled diadem but the schooner, fastened to a bit of ice, on the brow of the awful Ice King, shin- whose two prijecting tongues keep off ing with almost unbearable lustre of the pressure of the outer ice, which has ruhies, diamonds, emeralds, and sap- closed them up within 200 yards, lies in phires ; and the thundering sound of the deep calm. A boat is lowered, and the disrupted masses which strew the sea is men sit in dead silence in it, watching the warning of dismissal. They heed for the narwhal, which are blowing near, neither, but sail towards the densest part, and throwing up little jets of vapour through a fringe of broken ice in a heav- from the blowholes on either side of the ing sea, forcing the schooner at all speed, head. The harpooner is ready, the tubs and charging the most likely place for an and the line are prepared ; but the narentrance, as the surge rises and falls whal is difficult game ; he goes at trewith awful fury. They get through, for mendous speed, and his range of vision they have men on board who are accus- is wide ; so that when he is dragged on tomed to deal with ice, to hit it carefully, to the ice, with his spotted hide and his and turn it gently from its way; and the polished horn, he is a trophy of the first wonderful operation succeeds, the class. Great hordes of this curious schooner stands out to sea in a broad mammal travel through the Arctic seas, channel, with ice walls on either side, tusk to tusk and tail to tail, like a regiand the first terrific barrier lies between ment of cavalry, thousands strong, and them and all life that is less than Arctic. their play in great ice-encircled water

At first it is a little difficult to grow ac- wastes is wonderful to see, as their dapcustomed to the absence of darkness, pled sides curve close to the surface, and then the perpetual light becomes pleas- the tilting swords are thrust above the ant; but there must be always some waves in their reckless lunges ; or they confusion about time, especially when suddenly skim along the surface, curve occupation is either severe toil or strong their backs, and plunge headlong down, excitement, when danger is never absent following the vagaries of some chosen for long, and every object is absolutely leader. When the crew of the schooner strange and novel.

To drift off into the had killed their first narwhal, they made indistinguishable fog on an ice layer, a vast fireplace out of his remains, the when in pursuit of a family of seals, openings between the ribs serving the wariest and most tantalizing of crea- purpose of a grate, packed in wood and tures, is only an incident, and then the oakum, and set fire to the materials, in sailors begin to recall dismal precedents. order that the odorous fumes might at“ You remember them 'ere chaps as was tract any bears that might be in the left in this here way, and was all froze to neighbourhood. But neither narwhal death ?” says one to another. “As for nor bear causes such excitement as the that ship, Enterprise, I assure you, Sir," real“ right whale," the tremendous giant says a third, “ we could speak to the men of the seas, with the likeness of a man's on the ice, but could not get at them! head and face in the roof of his mouth; blowing a gale and freezing hard at the whose coming is waited for in speechless time ! thermometer 40 degrees below expectation, whose capture is the hardest zero!

We did all we could ; the oars work that men can do, whose value reand foremasts were tied together to try pays for all the labour and all the risk


men who have no eyes for the solitude is most appalling, and nowhere beauty and no sense of the sublimity of on the earth does man feel his weakness the scene. They are sailing on a silver and insignificance so much as bere, sea, in the wonderful Arctic sunlight, amidst the awful desolation. Once the which is unlike light in any other region, schooner's voyagers saw the rare snowin the still, intoxicating air which fills goose of Spitzbergen. They had astheir veins with life and thrills them with cended a ledge of rocks, 800 feet above a strange happiness ; past iridescent the sea-level ; slowly they made their caves rising out of the pure water, -ascent to the steep brow of the crags, they can see far back into them, where and found themselves near the edge of a the upper edges are festooned with a deep blue lake, the surface of which was dazzling ornament like a network of lace as smooth as a mirror. On it were recomposed of fine gems, the fringe posing a number of large geese, pure gleams in the prismatic light with every white, resting undisturbed in the awful motion of the waves, and the fairy halls solitude. At sight of the intruders they are filled with awful sound. What mar- rose and flew towards them, making for vellous, constant beauty and life where the open sea. Very soon after this, the man is only a brief accident! Prowling schooner had to begin her homeward in the distance are two Polar bears, voyage ; symptoms of the Arctic winter which the crew kill, and whose stomachs which proud man must not dare to brave, are found to be quite empty. A few which hunts him out of the ice kingdom days more and a herd of walrus is re- as mercilessly as he hunts its furred and ported ; ---(some of the individuals feathered creatures, had set in. So the which compose it look, in the drawing of ship headed homewards, and one day them, like very fat elderly men lying on late in September she sailed up the their stomachs placidly and happily Humber, with a garland hanging from drunk) : — so, with terrible interludes of the masthead, in true whaler fashion. danger, when the schooner was driven helplessly into the foes, and with constant endurance of extreme fatigue, they came to Spitzbergen, and found magnificent reindeer, the noblest of the Arctic

THE GERMAN OLD CATHOLIC BISHOP. creatures. These are extremely difficult to stalk through the ice ravines and snow The German Mercury prints a biovalleys, for though they have no knowl- graphical sketch of the Old Catholic edge of man and his murderous propen- Bishop Reinkens, who has just been consities, their keen scent warns them that secrated Bishop of Germany. He was something strange is near. And they born at Burtscheid, near Aachen, on the love each other, poor faithful beasts? first of March, 1821, so that he is now in with a love stronger than fear or the in- his fifty-third year. His father owned a disstinct of self-preservation. “Mr. Leigh tillery and some little property, which he Smith, sailing in Benlopen Straits in was unfortunate enough to lose. On that 1871, shot a large stag, but could not get account Reinkens, after his mother's near its companion ; as they were a long death in 1836, had to work for the support way from the ship, he had the head and of his father at manual labour. But it horns removed, and brought along with was soon evident that he was qualified him to his schooner. They saw the sur- for a more dignified occupation. In the vivor go to the headless remains, and autumn of 1840. he entered the Quarta then follow the party to the ship. As it of the Gymnasium at Aachen, passed lingered on the shore, a man quietly through the “Tertia” and “Unterprima," landed from the boat and shot it.” Over and in the summer of 1844 completed the the grand beauty of the still transparent course. He then went to Bonn, where water of King's Bay; the enormous he studied with so much zeal and success mountains, every foot of their frontage that in his first year he received the prize occupied by a sea-bird, until numbers from the philosophical faculty for an fail to give any notion of their myriads ; essay on “The Idea and Definition of and the great glacier which occupies the Virtue among the Greeks.". In the upper part of the harbour, and fills the autumn of 1847 he passed his theological mind with awe — the marvellous Arctic examinations at Cologne in the first class, light is shining, and glorifies all that it then entered the priests' seminary there, illuminates. But where the grandeur was first among the candidates for examand the beauty are greatest, there the 'ination, and on the 3rd of September,

From The Pall Mall Gazette.

1848, was ordained a priest. He resumed

From The Saturday Review. his studies at Bonn, having, on account

ROME AND ITS ADVERSARIES. of " distinguished theological attain- Far above all sm.all questions of curments,” obtained a State stipendium (or rent politics, changes of Ministries, subscholarship) for two years, and prepared stitution of Republics for Monarchies, or his doctor's dissertation. He went to Monarchies for Republics, stand the two Munich in 1849, and was made “Doctor great questions of the times in which we theologiæ ” with the “nota eminentiæ.” | live — the question as to what will be In March, 1850, he went to Breslau, the issue of the contest between the lawhere he lectured on Church history as bouring classes and their employers, and a Privatdocent. The following year his the question as to what will be the issue work on Clement of Alexandria was pub- of the contest between the Church of Rome lished, and in the spring of 1853 he be- and its adversaries. The two questions came extraordinary, and four years after- are even beginning to interlace on the Conwards ordinary, Professor of Church tinent, and those who dread the workinghistory. Until 1865 he had been thrice man denounce him as the enemy of Dean of the Catholic theological faculty, religion as well as the enemy of propand from 1865 to 1866 he was Rector oferty and comfort. In England the distrust the University of Breslau. From 1851 to of 'the labourer and the weariness and 1861 the claims of his office prevented disgust produced in the minds of quiet any great literary activity. Since Jan- people by perpetual strikes show themuary 20, 1853, he had been first cathedral selves in the comparatively mild form of preacher, in which capacity he delivered an alienation of wavering Liberals from the Sunday sermons in the cathedral their party, and an inclination to see church at Breslau till Easter, 1858. He whether a Conservative Government canthen resigned the office in order to have not impart a more healthy tone to soleisure for literary pursuits. For the ciety. But on the Continent, and essame reason he resigned his canonry in pecially in France, there is a very large 1857, and in 1858 the provostship of St. and active party which proclaims as Hedwig in Berlin. His literary labours loudly and persistently as it can that the bore rich fruits. In the year 1861 ap- only way to get the labourer into a right peared his history of the Leopold Uni- frame of mind again as regards his work versity until its union with that of Frank- and wages is to submit him once more to fort; in 1864 his monographs on “ Hilary the old authority of a despotic religion. of Poitiers” and “ The Hermit of St. The pre-eminent thought in minds of this Hieronymus ; ” in 1865 “ Martin of type is that half measures, half religions, Tours ;” and in 1866 “ The History of and half governments have failed. They the Philosophy of St. Augustine. A have encouraged an amount of liber.y prolonged residence in Rome (1867 to with which they have not been able to 1868) gave him a profound view of the cope after it has attained its full force. unwholesome condition of the Roman They have made men discontented, Church, and nerved him to continue his disorderly, and unhappy, and if mankind study of the ancients. As the fruit of is ever to be happy again, it must return this resolution in May, 1870, was pub- to the paths it has deserted. There is lished his “Aristotle upon Art,” which nothing new in this, as there have always induced the philosophical faculty of Leip- been in every age crowds of people who zig to appoint him in 1871 “ Doctor phil. have thought that the only reason why osophiæ honoris causâ.” His experi- governments ever failed was that they did ences in Rome also stimulated him to in- not govern enough, and that religious auvestigate closely the historical causes of thorities should seize hold of every man the decline of the Roman Church. from his cradle to his grave, and, with the Through the proceedings at the Council aid of the civil authorities working submisthe duty of continuing such studies was sively under them, should take care that more than ever impressed on Reinkens. he did not come to harm, or bring others With all the energy of his character he to harm in this world or the next. What devoted himsel to study, and entered is new, at least in this generation, is the upon the struggle with Rome which his determined and thorough manner in inquiries more and more convinced him which this view of human life is now aswas inevitable.

serted in the face of the violent opposition it excites. In every direction the Absolutist party takes the ground of rejecting every compromise, and of carrying out its theories without heeding any | not belong to those Catholic associations of the limits which common sense or the which are pronounced to be dangerous, strength of counter-theories might im- or they will forth with be dismissed. The pose. In politics it is engaged in a fierce Archbishop of Posen has been sentenced combat, beating down Republicans, sneer- to a heavy fine for contravention of the new ing at Constitutionalists, spreading the laws, and the State authorities have given peace of silence wherever it can reach. notice in a town where an incumbent was În religion it is loth to trouble itself with appointed by an Archbishop in a manner evidences, modest misgivings, limited not permitted by the law, that the State adoration. It is determined to have mir- will not recognise any of the acts peracles and visions, and it has them. It formed by this ecclesiastic, and, more delights in every form of mysticism and especially, that marriages celebrated by pietistic rapture. It sees in every event him will be considered invalid, and that of life a judgment or a blessing according children baptized by him will need to be to its prepossessions. And then all this rebaptized. The Courts have also interfervour and this distaste for half measures vened to help the Government. They constantly find force and support in the have decided that the Old Catholics are dogma of infallibility which has so largely not Dissenters, and that they are a relichanged the attitude of the Church to gious body recognized by the law, so that the Civil Power. One mouth now pro- attacks on their worship by their Ultranounces absolutely and unquestionably montane enemies may be punished as what is right; and all bargains with the libellous. The Government, adopting Civil Power — concordats, vetoes on this view, and carrying it out to its natbishops, and other devices by which the ural conclusion, has not only refused to State kept the Church somewhat in the interfere with the Old Catholics, but has background - now seem out of date. appointed an Old Catholic to be an inThe Pope alone is to speak, and kings, spector of schools in a district where a and emperors, and presidents have but to large portion of the schools he will have listen.

to inspect belong to Catholics. The The consequences of this new attitude Ultramontanes pay as little attention as of the Absolutist or Ultramontane party they possibly can to the decrees of the are rapidly making themselves felt all State, will not come when they are sent over the world. It was because the Irish for, or do as they are bid, and keep doing bishops would have all or nothing that what they are forbidden to do by law. the very liberal offer made on the part of That they will be in some degree strengththe State by Mr. Gladstone to the Irish ened by the severe measures taken to Catholics was rejected, and the problem coerce them, that their ardour will grow of Irish Education was deferred to a re- more intense, that their secret associamote future. In Germany the collision tions will become more powerful, and between Church and State grows every that they will gain in coherence and orday more intense. There the State is a ganization, is tolerably certain. But great power, and its means of annoying whether the State may not in the long å religious body which defies it are very run and on the whole beat them, and considerable. On neither side is there make the mass of Germans hold aloof any finching The Government has from them, is still uncertain. The Govarmed itself with new laws, and is reso- ernment has on its side the idea of the lutely putting them in force, and it has State and of its authority which is now taken under its protection that small so deeply planted in the German mind. body of Catholics which openly stands It has also the national spirit, which sees aloof from the bulk of the community to in German Ultramontanes the friends of which it lately belonged, and rejects the France and the enemies of the Fatherdogma of infallibility. The legislation land. But perhaps what will tell for the of the summer has enabled the Prussian Government more than anything is that authorities to inspect and decide on the it daily becomes clearer from the experimerits of every clerical institution, and ence of other countries that a nation Commissioners are at work who do their must, since the promulgation of the dog. duty without any hesitation, and insist on ma of infallibility, either quarrel with the secrets of every institution being re- Ultramontanism or bow to it. Germans vealed to them. If they report against might get tired of a purely German conan institution and their report is approved test, but when they look beyond Germany of, the institution is at once closed. they will see that what is happening to Schoolmasters are warned that they must them is happening to a great many other


people also, and that they must in some | rel between France and Germany. The shape or other take their share in a Swiss Government has been among the struggle that is almost universal. foremost to withstand the new ecclesias

If there was one place more than an- tical onslaught, and it is said that the other where it might have been supposed Ultramontane party in Switzerland has rethat Ultramontanism would find none of cently applied for aid to the new French that moderate resistance which consists Government; while the Italian Governnot in breaking away from religion, but ment has given a public intimation of its in attempting to set bounds to ecclesias- conviction that the new-born fervour of tical power, it was South America. But French officials for pilgrimages and exeven there the quarrel which is di tract- piatory churches and clerical intrusion ing Germany has begun to rage. The into the army constitute a menace to State in Brazil finds itself defied by the Italy which it would be folly to disregard. Church, and the State in Brazil is tolera- But with regard to Brazil, there is no bly strong and respects itself, and does political question of the kind. If there not feel disposed to do exactly what it is is to be a war of revenge, Brazil can told to do by ecclesiastics of the modern help neither party, and it is therefore in type. The Bishops in Brazil have ven- the highest degree instructive to find tured


measures which have that there too the new dogma is producplaced them in antagonism with the Gov- ing a crisis essentially the same as that ernment. They have introduced, with through which Germany and Switzerland out the permission of the Govenment, and Italy are passing. which is legally necessary for the purpose, Papal decrees, and put them in force, and they have taken upon themselves to excommunicate Freemasons, and to refuse them the rites of the Church.

From Saint Pauls. It may be added that very recently a new

A FOG ON THE THAMES. set of bishops, foreigners and violent Just now a growing fog has gathered Ultramontanes, have been imposed on on the river ; not thick enough -at any the country by Rome, while the local rate, as yet - to stop the traffic, but givclergy has still some feelings of indepen- ing so weird a look to everything which dence remaining. Thus exactly the same it invests as to be worth a note or two. questions which have arisen in Germany It is a June, not a November, fog. The are arising in Brazil. The three main subtropical plants in Battersea Park offences of the Prussian bishops in the seem quite at home in the sultry haze ; eyes of the Government were that they but the lilacs and the laburnum and the set up the law as promulgated by the hawthorns and the chesnuts, white and Pope above the law of the State, that red, and the ribbon flower-borders look they abused the power of excommunica- strangely dim, while again the rich, moist tion, and that they were parties to a sys- grass, seen close at hand, shines as if tem by which Catholic Germany was giving off its own light. A stray parkflooded with importations of foreign eccle- keeper with dimmed gilt bands and butsiastics. To make the bishops and their tons, one or two solitaries dreaming on inferiors obey the State laws, to keep the clammy garden-seats, a stray gardener their power of excommunication within who looks up from his work and silently the narrowest possible limits, and to gazes at a passer-by with cowlike eyes, a drive foreign ecclesiastics out of the lounging waiter yawning in the midst of country, were the aims which those a jumble of empty benches and tables, who framed the new Prussian ecclesias- and two or three little children dodging tical legislation had constantly in view. in and out between them like mice, are Whether the State, if pushed to extremi- the only people one meets in the whole. ties in Brazil, will adopt measures of of the damp, gauze-muffled park. Leaden equal vigour, it is as yet too early to say; and smooth and indistinct, with blurredbut at present the Emperor and his ad- green reflections, spreads the ornamental visers appear determined not to shrink, water, like a lagoon in which yellow fever and they are said to be effectually sup- and a Cuban slaver might be hiding. A ported by popular opinion. In Europe water-fowl rises with a scurry of wings to the contest is perpetually assuming a alight unseen with a dully audible splash. political form which in some degree con- Two black swans glide about noiselessly, ceals the true character. It has a ten- or talking to each other in the voice dency to merge itself in the general quar-'which is said to be excellent in woman,

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