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fo doing, which reasons I have shewn to be the reports of Mary Mag. Hus dalene and Joanna: and as there was a confiderable interval between aan his first and second vifit, a proportionable space of time must have intervened between the two reports. After Mary , dalene's, he had been at the fepulchre, had returned from thence to his own home, and was now got with the other apostles and disciples, whom, as I play said, he and John had in all probability called together before Joanna and the women with her came to make theirs.
Thirdly, as the reports were made at different times, and by different women, as the facts reported were different, and said to have happened all in the same place, viz. at the sepulchre, and as these com facts must of consequence have happened at different times; it follows, that the women, who reported those facts as happening in their presence, must have been at the fepulchre at different times. For, had they been all present at each of these events, no reason can for their differing so widely in their relations, and pretty difficult will it be to account for their varying so much as to the time of making their reports. Here then is a strong argument in favour of what I have before advanced concerning the women's coming at different times to the sepulchre, and particularly about the Marys coming thither earlier than the rest. The reason for their so doing I have already pointed out in my observations upon St. Mark; and have shewn, that, upon the suppofition of that reason's being the true one, their whole conduct was' proper and consistent : which leads me to consider that of Joanna and the other women, who came fomewhat Iater, and with another purpose, to the fepulchre. The former came to take a view or survey of the fepulchre," as St. Matthew expressly says; the latter came to a embalin or anoint the Lord's body," and for that end not only s brough the spices which they had prepared," but were also accompanied by other women. Other women must mean fome besides those that followed Jesus from Galilee, of whom alone St. Luke speaks in the former part of this verse and the latter part of the preceding chapier. By these therefore, as contradiítinguished from the Galilean women, he probably means the women of Jerusalem, a great coinpany of whom followed Jesus as he was going to his crucifixion, bewailing and lamenting him*. But what number of them went upon this occasion with the women of Galilee, is not any where said ; neither, of these, are any named, belides Joanna, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, though many orhers followed Jesus from Galilee to Jerufalem, as both Matthew, c. 2". V.55, and St. Mark, c. 15. v.41. inform us, and were present at the crucifixion. It is therefore very probable that most, if not all, of those who were wont to minister to him in Galilee, who attended him to Jerulalem, and accompanied him even to Mount Calvary, contributed to this pious office of embalming their Master's body, either by buying and preparing the unguents and spices, and carrying them to the fepul. chre, or by going to affist their companions in embalming the body and rolling away the stone, for which purpose I suppose the womer
* Seo she 27th verse of the preceding chapter.
of Jerusalem principally attended, since none of them seem to have o made any purchase of spices for embalming the body; and for this et lant purpure it is farther probable they thought their numbers fufficient. alih Accordingly, we do not find them saying among themselves, - Who 3 m fhall roll away the stone for us?' as the Marys did; nor do we find
the Marys bringing the spices which they had bought, as is here related of Joanna, and those with her: and doubtless the Evangelists,
had a meaning in their use and application of these expressions, the 728, former of which is very agreeable to the purpole that carried the zone Marys so early to the sepulchre; as is the latter to that of Joanna,
who, coming to embalmythe body, brought with her all that was 165;* necessary for performing that business, viz. the spices, and other wo
men to ashit her in rolling away the stone, &c. The different connes. lo duct of the women, therefore, indicates their several purposes in going La cand to the fepulchre, and tends to confirm what I have been all along
labouring to prove, that they went thither at different times, and
not all together.. arcure And as their having had different motives was the cause of their
going at different times, and dividing themselves into different com
panies, lo from their coming to the fepulchre in different bodies doing sprang a subdivision of one of those companies, which I shall now exaki a plain. The two Marys and Salome came first to the sepulchre; and cathew as they drew near, lifting up their eyės, perceived that the stone, which
is very great, was rolled away from the entrance; upon sight of og his which, Mary Magdalene, concluding that the body of Jesus was e larta taken away, ran immediately to acquaint Peter and John with it, how leaving her two companions at the fepulchre. That she was alone Best when the came to those two Apostles, is ftrongly implied by the
whole tenor of that passage in St. John, where this fact is related; as I have already oblerved ; and that the left her companions at the sepulchre, is as evident from what St. Mark fays of their entering into the fepulcbre, &ic. The reason of which probably was this: The knew that Joanna and her company would not be long before they came thither, and might therefore think it proper to desire the other Mary, and Salome, to wait for them there, to inform them that they had found the ftone rolled away, &c, and that he was gone to acquaint Peter and John with it: but whether this, or any other reason, was the cause of Mary Magdalene's going by herself to Peter and John, and the other two women staying behind at the sepulchre, is not very material to enquire; all I contend for is, that so it was ; and that hence arose the fubdivision of this company, that gave occasion to two appearances of Angels, and as many of Christ, and consequently multiplied the proofs and witnesses of the resurrection.
I hupe by this time it is sufficiently evident, that the facts related by the several women to the Apostles were different and distinct facts : and therefore I think iç unnecessary to enter into any farther argument upon that point. And although, in the beginning of my observations upon this chapter of St. Luke, I noted some particulars wherein this story of Joanna differs from that of the
have already oblerved
what St. Mark lan
was this: The
other women, and promised to make some remarks upon them; yet, for the last-mentioned reason, I dare' say I shall be easily acquitted of my promise, especially as those marks of difference are so obvious and striking, that little more need be done than point. ing them out to obfervation, I must, however, beg leave to ob serve, that the position relating to the Angels appearing and dilo appearing as they thought proper, laid down in my remarks upon St. John, is farther proved by the manner mentioned here in Saint Luke, which is implied to have been sudden, not only by the force and import of the expreslion, but by the remarkable circumstance of their not being seen by the women at their entering into the lepulchre.
$ 7.. Though the following passage of this chapter relating to Christ's appearance to the Disciples at Emmaus hath been already produced in part, yet I think it proper to insert it entire in this place, that, by the reader's having it all before him at once, he may be better able to judge of the observation I intend to make upon it.
.66 And behold two of them went that same day to a village called
v raid unto
certain women also of our company made us astonithe “ were early at the fepulchre; and when they found not
they came,' saying, that they had also seen à vifion 66 which said that he was alive: and certain of them w “ with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as 66 men had said : but him they saw not. Then he said ur 66 O fools, and flow of heart, to believe all that the props 65 spoken! Ought not Christ to have suffered these things có enter into his glory?' And beginning at Moses and all 56 phets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the
concerning himself. And they drew nigh unto the villag so ther they went, and he made as though he would hav $6 farther. But they constrained bim, saying, Abide with
walk and are fad?
S; answering, said ulalem, and hast not
ere in these days!'
Vas a prophet,
a vision of angels, of them which were
even so as the wo. he said unto them, the prophets have
things, and to 's and all the proptures the things
he village whic ould have gone
e with us, for
« it is towards evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in “ to tarry with them. And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with " them, he took bread and blessed it, and brake and gave to them. 56 And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished “ out of their fight. And they said one to another, "Did not our « hearts burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and “ while he opened to us the Scriptures?' And they rose up the «. fame hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven ga" thered together, and them that were with them, saying, “The " Lord is rilen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. And they told * what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them “ in breaking of bread.”
Whoever reads this story over with any degree of attention, and considers the subject of the conversation which our Saviour held with the two disciples upon the road to Emmaus, will perceive that it must have arisen from what the angels had said to the women related in the preceding verses of this chapter. To set this matter in the clearest light, we will put the several parts together. The angels said to the women who came to embalm the body of Jesus, " He " is not here, but is risen. Remember how he spake unto you, « when he was yet in Galilee, saying, “The son of man must be “ delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the " third day rise again." The words of our Saviour referred to by the angels are these (Luke xviii. ver. 31–33): “ Then he took “ unto him the twelve, and said unto them, “Behold we go up to “ Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets con“ cerning the son of man shall be accomplished. For he shall be “ delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully “ entreated, and spitted on; and they shall scourge him, and put “ him to death; and the third day he shall rise again.” The words of the angels these two disciples had heard from the women before they left Jerusalem ; and as they were walking towards Emmaus, and talking over the wonderful things that had come to pass, they seem at last to have fallen into a debate upon the subject of these words, and the prophecies referred to by them, just as our Saviour drew near. That they were engaged in some argument or disquifition, I infer, not only from the Greek word ouerleiv, which signifies to discuss, examine, or inquire, together ; but from our Saviour's question, who, apparently, having overheard some part of their discourse, asks them, Toves vi aóyou ŠTO Ås årticimile após árróno's; “ What arguments are these, that ye are debating one with ano" ther, while ye walk and are sad?” The subject of their argument appears in their answer to this question, in which they give him to understand that they were reasoning upon the things that had come to pass concerning Jesus of Nazareth, “whom,” say they, " alluding plainly to the words of the angels, “ the chief priests " and our rulers have delivered to be condemned to death, and have “ crucified him." And hence arises all our sadness, for “ we trusted " that it had been He which faould have redeemed Israel; and “ over and above all these things, to-day is the third day since o these things were done” (another allusion to the words of the angels); and “to-day fome women of our company" astonished us with an account of iheir having been usiy at the fepulchre, and, not finding the body of Jerus, having there been told by ange's that he was riien from the dead. And some of our companions, running immediately to the sepulchre, found :bc report of the wo. men to be true; “but him they saw nor.” The iufferings, and death, and resurrection, of Jesus, were the subjects of their debates, foretold, as the angels bade them remember, out of the prophets, by Christ himself; and the scope of their inquiry was how to reconcile these events with the prophecies to which they were referred. Part of them they had seen accomplished in the suffering and death of Chrift; and that ought to have assured them of the accomplishiment of the other part : but either from not understanding, or from a backwardness in believing, all that the prophets bad said, they stopped short of this conclusion, For this ignorance and backwardness Christ reproves them ; asks them whether (according to the prophets) - Christ ought not to have suffered these things, and 6 to enter into his glory, i. e. to rise again ; and then beginning ut at Moses and all the prophets, he expounds to them in all the • Scriptures the things concerning himself.” The connexion is visible; at the beginning of the chapter the Angels refer the Dir. ciples, for the proof of the resurrection, to the prophets; and here, Chrilt joining two of those Disciples on the road, is, by their discourse upon that subject, led to explain those prophecies, and prove from them that the Messiah was certainly risen from the dead, And in the like manner is the remaining part of this chapter, to verse the 46th, connected with this and the preceding. For these two Disciples returning to Jerusalem, relate to the Apofiles and the rest, whom they found gathered together, what had passe d between Christ and them upon the road to Emmaus; and while they were speaking, Christ himself appears; and, after having given them sensible proofs of his being risen from the dead, reminds them, as the angel had done, of the words which he spake unto them in Gali.ee, laying, " These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with
you, that all things must be fulilled, which were written in the “ jaw of Moses, and in the Propheis, and in the Piaims, concerne 46 ing me. Then opened he their understanding, that they might es understand the Scriptures; and said unto them, Thus it is writo w ten, and thus it behoved Christ to fe:fier, and to rise from the dead 6 the third day.” · The connexion and dependence of the several parts of this chapter upon each other, point out to us the reason that induced St. Luke to relate the vision of the two angels to Joanna and the other women; and at the same time prove that vision to be distinct and different from those feen by the Marys; each of which had, in like manner, its separate and peculiar reference to other facts, as will presently be seen.