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$ 8. I shall now proceed to consider the appearances of Christ to the women on the day of his resurrection ; which, like those of the angels, have also been confounded, and from the same cause, viz. from the want of attending with due care to the several circumstances, by which they are plainly distinguished from each other. And, ult, I observe, that these appearances of Christ are so connected with the appearances of the angels, that these having been proved to be distinct, it follows that those are distinct also. 2dly, St. Mark expressly tells us, that Christ appeared first to Mary Magdalene, which, according to all propriety of speech, implies that she was alone at the time of that appearance, as I have said once before. But I think it best to set down the passages themselves, of St. John and St. Matthew, in which these appearances are related. John, chap. xx. ver. 11. " But Mary stood without, at the sepulchre, weeping; and as “ The wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, and “ seeth two angels in white, fitting, 'the one at the head, and the “ other at the feet, where the body of Jerus had lain; and they say " unto her, · Woman, why weepest thou?' She saith unto them, Be“ cause they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they “ have laid him.' And when she had said thus, she turned herself “ back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Je“ sus faith unto her, "Woman why weepest thou? Whom seekest " thou?' She supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, 'Sir, " if thou hast borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, " and I will take him away.' Jefus faith unto her, Mary!' She turned " herself, and faith unto him, Rabboni l' which is to say, “Master.' " Jesus saith unto her, « Touch me not, for I am not yet ascended “ unto my Father ; but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I " ascend unto my Father and your Father, and to my God and your, “ God.' Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that the had “ seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.” Marth. xxviii. ver... “ And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, “ Jesus met them, saying, “All hail!' And they came and held him " by the feet, and worthipped him. Then said Jesus unto them, " Be not afraid: go, tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and " there shall they lee me.”
After having produced these two passages, it would be wasting both time and words, to go about to prove the appearances therein mentioned to be different. Compare them, and you will find them disagree in every circumitance; in the place, the persons, the actions, and the words of which last I must observe, that they refer to two different events, viz. the ascension of Christ into heaven, and meeting his disciples in Galilee, of which they were prophecies; and by which they, and consequently there appearances of Christ, were not long after verified, though discredited at first, and treated as idle
I have tow gone over the several particulars of the history of the resurrection, related in the Four Evangelists, have examined them with all the attention I am capable of, and with a sincere desire of discose
vering and embracing the truth; and have, as I think, made out the following points : iit, That the women came at different times, and in different companies, to the fepulchre: 2dly, That there were several distinct appearances of angels : 3dly, That the angels were not always visible, but appeared and disappeared as they thought proper : 4thly, That these several facts were reported to the Apostles at different times, and by different women : 5thly, That there were two diftinct appearances of Christ to the women: and 6thly, That St. Peter was twice at the fepulchre. These points being once established, all the objections against this part of the Gospel-history, as contradictory and inconsistent, entirely vanish and come to nought. That very learned and ingenious men have been embarrassed by these objections is some excuse for those who first started them, and those who have lately insisted upon them. Their having now received an answer (if that will be allowed), it is a clear proof that it was always poffible to answer them, even with a very moderate share of common sense and learning. The nature of the answer itself, which is founded upon the usual, obvious, plain sense of the words, without putting any force, either upon the particular expressions, or the general construction of the several passages, is an evidence of what I now say. So that I must needs acknowledge, that its having been so long missed is matter of far greater surprise than its having been bit upon now. "
I shall here beg leave to subjoin a few observations of a very emiment and judicious person, to whose inspection 1 submitted these pa. pers, and in whose approbation of them I have great reason to pride myself. They are as follows:
« To prove the appearances at the sepulchre to be different, and s made to different persons, two things concur.,
" I. The several accounts, as given by the evangelists.
- 11. The circumstances which attended the cafe. .18 The first point is fully considered ; and of the second it is very 66 juftly remarked, that the women having agreed to be early at the 66 sepulchre, it fell out naturally, that some came before others. Now rs there being at the place of meeting something to terrify them as cs fast as they arrived, it accounts alio for their dispersion, and their " not meeting at all in one body. It may help likewise to ac66 count for the manner of delivering their messages to the Apostles ; c fupposing their messages not delivered in the fame order, in point < of time, as the appearances happened. For the most terrified might " be the latest reporters, though they received their orders first. " Which observation is favoured by St. Mark's šdavi géu simov, neither 6 faid they any thing to any man." :66 The difficulty upon stating the appearances to be different, and 66 made to different persons, arises chiefly from Mary Magdalene being 66 mentioned present by every evangelist: but there seems to be this 06 reason for it; she was at the head of the women and the chief of those 66 who attended our Lord, and followed him from Galilee; and -66 Mary Magdalene, and the women with her, denotes the women who
hre, feciwith the trom Galileing raid agdalene, hew, xxvave
o came from Galilee, in the same manner that the eleven denotes the 6s Apostles.
"Three Evangelists say expressly that many women were presens " at the crucifixion. Had it been left to generally, we should have " had no account who they were. Therefore St. Matthew, xxvii. « 56. adds, fy ais nu, among whom was Mary Magdalene, &c. So it " is again, Mark xv. 40.--St. Luke having said in general terms, that " the women, who followed from Galilee, were spectators of the cruos cifixion, goes on with the account (xxiv, I.) of their coming to " the sepulchre, seeing angels, and returning to tell the eleven, and « all the rest. But to give credit to their report, and to correct the " omission in not describing them before, he tells us who they were : " and how does he describe them? Why, by saying they were of the “ company of Mary Magdalene : 'Hoar det Maydannon, &c. xxiv. 10. ce which verse admits, perhaps requires, a different reading from that « in our translation.
66 These confiderations seem to account for her being mentioned " in the transactions of these women, though not always present hera “ felf. St. Luke says (xxiv. I.) that, besides the women from Galia " lee, there were other women there. To distinguish those who « make the report to the disciples, from the other women, he adds " the words already referred to*.
" It is remarkable, that St. Mark says of the women, mentioned " by him, no more than that they had bought (pices to anoint the
# The words of St. Luke deserve a particular examination; they run thus in the Greek : Και υποςρέψασαι από τα μνημεία απήγτειλαν ταύτα πάνlα τους ένδεκα , πάσι τους λοιπούς. "Hoax di M Magdaanan Magic ng 'iwáva rý Magic 'Ianw6%, sj ai 2007c civ ävlañs, a Ēre you apos Tès Tosines Tauta. In English, “ And turning back from the fepulchre, they told all "i these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. Now they who related those things to the “ Apostles, were Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and the rest " with them, i. e. of their company.” As the account of the proceedings of the Galilean women begins in the foregoing chapter, and is carried on without any interruption to the gth, verse of this chapter ; so that the several verbs occurring in this and the preceding verses are all governed by the same nominative case, viz. yuvaixec; in ver. 55 of the 23d chapter, it is evident that tauta wávla, "all these things,” must be taken to extend to all the particulars mentioned in that account, and cannot be confined to the transactions of the lepulchre only: and the same observation holds equally to the taūta in the following verse. The utmost therefore that can be inferred from St. Luke's naming Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, is, that they were concerned in some of these transactions, and joined in relating some of these things to the Apostles; which is true, for they 66 sat over « against the fepulchre,” when Joseph laid in it the body of the Lord, Matt. xxvii. 61. “ And beheld where he was laid;" Mark xv. 47.--They also “ had bought sweet fpices, " that they might come and anoint him;” Mark xvi. 1. and were the first who came to the fepulchre that morning, and brought the first account of the body's being misling; Mati and Mark, And though, by comparing the accounts given by the other Evangelists with this os St. Luke, it appears that neither of these women went with Joanna and her company to the sepulchre; yet as they were Galilean women, and bore a part, and a principal part too, in what the women of Galilee were then chiefly employed about, namely, the care of embalming the body of Jesus, there is certainly no impropriety in St. Luke's naming them with Joanna and the rest, as he does in the end of the general and collective account he gives of what was reported and done by the Galilean women. Neither docs his naming them appropriate to them any particular part of that general account, any more than his not naming them would have excluded them from their share of those transactions and the report then made to the Apostles. In this case they would have been included in the general terms of Galilean women; as, by being named, they are diftinguished and marked as the most eminent persons and leaders of that company of women who followed Je!us from Galilee, &c.
$6 body; enough to shew with what intent they went to the tomb:-" that they had any spices with them, he does not say. But St. Luke “ says of those he mentions, that they actually brought with them " the spices; and not only so, but that they had prepared them; that " is, made them fit for the use intended. The several drugs were « bought fingly, each by itself at the shop, and were necessarily to be “ mixed, or meited together for use: and I imagine that, though all " the women joined in buying the spices, yet the care of getting and « preparing them was left particularly to the women mentioned by “ St. Luke :and as they were Galileans, and not at home at Jeru“ falem, and probably unacquainted with the method of enibalming “ bodies, that they employed some inhabitants of the place to buy 66 and prepare the spices, and to go with them to apply them to the « body; and these are the tives orv áulais, others with them, in St. 26 Luke.
6. This will account for St. Matthew saying nothing of spices ;-a “c for they had none with thein : they let out before those who were “ to bring the spices, to lee what condition the sepulchre was in : and “ their business is properly expressed by Drwęñozi tòn tábor, to see the “ sepulchre.
« Mary Magdalene was with the first (Matthew and Mark) who as went to the sepulchre; but I think she did not go to the sepulchre “ then : as soon as she was in light of the place, lifting up her eyes 66 Cárabayaon, Mark xvi. 4.] and seeing the stone removed, the 66 turned instantly (tráxs. 2r, John xx 2.] to tell Peter and John. And «c it is plain by her behaviour at her second going, that the had “ no share in the fright that seized those who went on after the left " them.”
$ 9. Having thus cleared the way, I Mall now set down the several incidents of this wonderful event in the order in which, according to the foregoing observations, they seem to have arisen; after premising chat our Saviour Christ was crucified on a Friday (the pre. paration, or the third day before the Jewish sabbath), gave up the ghost about three o'clock in the afternoon of the same day, and was buried that evening, before the commencement of the Sabbath, which among the Jews was always reckoned to begin from the first appear. ance of the stars on Friday evening, and to end at the appearance of them again on the day we call Saturday: that some time, and most probably towards the close of the Sabbath, after the religious duties of the day were over, the chief priests obtained of Pilate, the Roman governor, a guard to watch the fepulchre, till the third day was past, pretending to apprehend that his disciples might come by night, and iteal away the body, and then give out that he was ri fen, according to what he himself had predicted, while he was yet alive : that they did accordingly set a guard, made sure the sepulchre, and, to prevent the soldiers themselves from concurring with the Disciples, cher put a seal upon the ftone which closed up the entrance of the le. pulcbre.
The order I conceive to be as follows:
Very early on the first day of the week (the day immediately fole lowing the Sabbath, and the third from the death of Christ), Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, in pursuance of the design of embalming the Lord's body, which they had concerted with the other women, who attended him from Galilee to Jerusalem, and for the performing of which they had prepared unguents and spices, set out in order to take a view of the fepulchre, just as the day began to break : and about the time of their setting out, “ there was a great earth" quake : for the angel of the Lord descended from heaven, and “ came and rolled back the stone from the door of the fepulchre, " and fat upon it: his countenance was like lightning, and his " raiment white as snow; and for fear of him the keepers did shake, " and became as dead men,” during whofe amazement and terror Christ came out of the fepulchre; and the keepers, being now recovered out of their trance, and Aed, the angel, who till then fat upon the stone, quitted his station on the outside, and entered into the sepulchre, and probably disposed the linen clothes and napkin in that order in which they were afterwards found and observed by John and Peter. Mary Magdalene, in the mean while, and the
other Mary, were still on their way to the fepulchre, where, togeferie ther with Salone (whom they had either called upon, or met as om they were going), they arrived at the rising of the lan. And as they
drew near, discourfing about the method of putting their intent of embalming the body of their master in extcution, "they faid " among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the “ door of the sepulchre ? for it was very great;” and they themTelves (the two Marys at least) had seen it placed there two days before, and feen with what difficulty it was done. But in the midst of their deliberation about removing this great and role obstacle to their design (for it does not appear that they knew any thing of the guard), - lifting up their eyes," while ihey were yet at lume distance, they perceived it was already rolled away. Alarıned at lo extraordinary and to unexpected a circumstance, Mary Magdalene concluding, that, as the stone could not be moved without a great number of hands, so it was not rolled away without some and that they who rolled it away, could have no other de put to remove the Lord's body; and being convinced by appearances that they had done fo, ran immediately to acquaint Peter and John with what she had seen, and what the suspected, leaving Mary' and Salome there, that, ifi Joanna and the other women thould come in The mean time, they might acquaint them with their furprise at finding the stone removed, and the body gone, and of Mary Magdalene's Funning to infore the two above-mentioned. apostles with it. While She was going on this errand, Mary and Salome went on, and entered into the fepulchre, " and there saw an angel fitting on the
nt fade, clothed in a long white garment, and they were af" frighted. And he faith unto them, Be not affrighted : ye feek Jesus, "S of Nazareth, which was crucified : he is risen, he is not here :