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BOOK XVI.

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWELVE YEARS.

FROM THE FINISHING OF THE TEMPLE BY HEROD, TO THE

DEATH OF ALEXANDER AND ARISTOBULUS.

CHAP. I.

A law of Herod's about thieves. Salome and Pheroras calum

niate Alexander and Aristobulus upon their return from

Rome, for whom yet Herod provides wives. § 1. As king Herod was very zealous in the administration of his entire government, and desirous to put a stop to particular acts of injustice which were done by criminals about the city and country, he made a law, no way like our original laws, and which he enacted of himself, to expose housebreakers to be ejected out of his kingdom; which punishment was not only grievous to be borne by the offenders, but contained in it a dissolution of the customs of our forefathers, for this slavery to foreigners, and such as did not live after the manner of Jews, and this necessity that they were under to do whatsoever such men should command, was an offence against our religious settlement, rather than a punishment to such as were found to have offended, such a punishment being avoided in our original laws; for those laws ordain, that the thief shall restore fourfold; and that if he have not so much, he shall be sold indeed, but not to foreigners, nor so that he be under perpetual slavery, for he must have been released after six years. But this law, thus enacted, in order to introduce a severe and illegal punishữnent, seemed to be a piece of insolence in Herod, when he did not act as a king but as a tyrant, and thus contemptuously, and without any regard to his subjects did he venture to introduce such a pu-" nishment. Now this penalty, thus brought into practice, was like Herod's other actions, and became a part of his accusation, and an occasion of the hatred he lay under.

2. Now at this time it was that he sailed to Italy, as very desirous to meet with Cæsar, and to see bis sons who lived at Rome: and Cæsar was not only very obliging to him in other respects, but delivered him his sons again, that he might take them home with him, as having already completed themselves in the sciences; but as soon as the young men were

come from Italy, the multitude were very desirous to see them, and they became conspicuous among them all, as adorned with great blessings of fortune, and having the countenances of persons of royal dignity. So they soon appeared to be the objects of envy to Salome, the king's sister, and to such as had raised calumnies against Mariamne; for they were suspicious, that when these came to the government, they should be punished for the wickedness they had been guilty of against their mother; so they made this very fear of theirs a motive to raise calumnies against them also. They gave it out that they were not pleased with their father's company, because he had put their motber to death, as if it were not agreeable to piety to appear to converse with their mother's murderer. Now, by carrying these stories, that had indeed a true foundation (in the fact], but were only built on probabilities, as to the present accusation, they were able to do them mischief, and to make Herod take away that kindness from his sons which he had before borne to them, for they did not say these things to bim openly, but scattered abroad such words among the rest of the multitude; from which words, when carried to Herod, he was induced (at last] to hate them, and which natural affection itself, even in length of time, was not able to overcome; yet was the king at that time in a condition to prefer the natural affection of a father before all the suspicions and calumnies his son's lay under: So he respected them as be ought to do, and married them to wives, now they were of an age suitable thereto. To Aristobu. lus he gave for a wife Bernice, Salome's daughter, and to Alexander, Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia.

CHA P. II.

How Herod twice sailed to Agrippa ; and how, upon the cont

plaint of the Jews in Iona, against the Greeks, Agrippa

confirmed the laws of the Jews to them. § 1. When Herod had dispatched these affairs, and he understood that Marcos Agrippa had sailed again out of Italy into Asia, he made haste to him, and besought him to come to him into his kingdom, and to partake of what be might justly expect from one that had been his guest, and was his friend. This request he greatly pressed, and to it Agrippa agreed, and came into Judea ; whereupon Herod omitted nothing that might please him. He entertained him in his new built cities, and shewed him the edifices he had built, and provided all sorts of the best and most costly dainties for him and his friends, and that at Sebaste and Cesarea, about that port that he had built, and at the fortresses which he had erected at great expences, Alexandrium and Herodium, and Hyrcania. He also conducted him to the city Jerusalem, where all the people met him in their festival garments, and received him with acclamations. Agrippa also offered an hecatomb of sacrifices to God; and feasted the people, without omitting any of the greatest dainties that could be gotten. He also took so much pleasure there, that he abode many days with them, and would willingly have staid longer, but that the season of the year made him make haste away ; for, as winter was coming on, he thought it not safe to go to sea later, and yet he was of necessity to return again to Ionia.

2. So Agrippa went away, when Herod had bestowed on him, and on the principal of those that were with him, many presents; but kiug Herod, when he had passed the winter in his own dominions, made haste to get to him again in the spring, when he knew he designed to go to a campaign at the Bosphorus. So when he had sailed by Rhodes, and by Cos, he touched at Lesbos, as thinking he should have overtaken Agrippa there, but he was taken short here by a north wind, which hindered his ship from going to the shore : so he continued many days at Chius, and there he kindly treated a great many that came to bim, and obliged them by giving them royal gifts. And when he saw that the portico of the city was fallen down, which, as it was overthrown in the Mithridatie war, and was a very large and fine building, so was it not so easy to rebuild that as it was the rest, yet did he furnish a sum not only large enough for that purpose, but what was more than sufficient to finish the building; and ordered them not to overlook that portico, but to rebuild it quickly, that so the city might recover its proper ornaments.

And when the high winds were laid, he sailed to Mitylene, and thence to Byzantium; and when he heard that Agrippa was sailed beyond the Cyanean rocks, he made all the haste possible to overtake him, and came up with him about Sinope, in Pontus. He was seen sailing by the shipmen most unexpectedly, but appeared to their great joy; and many friendly salutations there were between them, insomuch that Agrippa thought he had received the greatest marks of the king's kindness and humanity towards bim possible, since the king had come so long a voyage, and at a very proper season for his assistance, and had left the government of his own dominions, and thought it more worth his while to come to him, Accordingly Herod was all in all to Agrippa, in the management of the war, and a great assistant in civil affairs, and in giving him counsel as to particular matters. He was also a pleasant companion for him when he relaxed bimself, and a joint partaker with him in all things; in troubles because of his kindness, and in prosperity because of the respect Agrippa had for him. Now as soon as those affairs of Pontus were finished, for whose sake Agrippa was sent tbither, they did not think fit to return by sea, but passed through Paphlagonia and Cappadocia; they then travelled thence over great Phrygia, and came to Ephesus, and then they sailed from Ephesus to Samos. And indeed the king bestowed a great many benefits on every city that he came to, according as they stood in need of them; for as for those that wanted either money or kind treatment, he was not wanting to them ; but he supplied the former himself out of his own expences: he also became an intercessor with Agrippa for all such as sought after his favour, and he brought things so about, that the petitioners failed in none of their suits to him, Agrippa being himself of a good disposition, and of great generosity, and ready to grant all such requests as might be advantageous to the petitioners, provided they were not to the detriment of others. The inclination of the king was of great weight also, and still excited Agrippa, who was himself ready to do good; for he made a reconciliation between the people of Ilium, at whom he was angry, and paid what money the people of Chius owed Cæsar's procurators, and discharged thein of their tributes; and helped all others, according as their several necessities required.

3. But now, when Agrippa and Herod were in Ionia, a. great multitude of Jews, who dwelt in their cities, came to them, and laying hold of the opportunity and the liberty now given them, laid before them the injuries which they suffered, wbile they were not permitted to use their own laws, but were compelled to prosecute their law-suits, by the ill usage of the judges, upon their holy-days, and were deprived of the money they used to lay up at Jerusalem, and were forced into the army, and upon such other offices as obliged them to spend their sacred money; from which burdens they always used to be freed by the Romans, who had still permitted them to live according to their own laws. When this clamour was made, the king desired of Agrippa that he would hear their cause, and assigned Nicolaus, one of his friends, to plead for those their privileges. Accordingly, when Agrippa had called the principal of the Romans, and such of the kings and rulers as were there, to be his assessors, Nicolaus stood up, and pleaded for the Jews, as follows: “ It is of ne“ cessity incumbent on such as are in distress to have recourse

to those that have it in their power to free them from those

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injuries they lie under; and for those that now are complai

nants, they approach you with great assurance; for as they “ have formerly often obtained your favour, so far as they " have even wished to have it, they now only entreat that

you who have been the donors, will take care that those " favours you have already granted them may not be taken away from them.

We have received these favours froin you, who alone have

power grant them, but have thein .“ taken from us by such as are no greater than ourselves, 66 and by such as we know are as much subjects as we are: " and certainly, if we have been vouchsafed great favours, it " is to our commendation, who have obtained them, as hav“ ing been found deserving of such great favours ; and if c those favours be but small ones, it would be barbarous for 66 the donors not to confirm them to us : And for those that

are the hindrance of the Jews, and use them reproachfully, it is evident that they affront both the receivers, while

they will not allow those to be worthy men to whom their " excellent rulers themselves have borne their testimony, " and the donors, while they desire those favours already “ granted may be abrogated. Now, if any one should ask " these Gentiles themselves, which of the two things they " would choose to part with, their lives, or the customs of " their forefathers, their solemnities, their sacrifices, their “ festivals, which they celebrated in honour of those they

suppose to be gods? I know very well that they would “ clioose to suffer any thing whatsoever rather than a disso" lution of any of the customs of their forefathers; for a

great many of them have rather chosen to go to war on " that account, as very solicitous not to transgress in those

matters : And indeed we take an estimate of that happi

ness which all mankind do now enjoy by your means from “ this very thing, that we are allowed every one to worship

as our own institutions require, and yet to live [in peace]: “ and although they would not be thus treated themselves,

yet do they endeavour to compel others to comply with " them, as if it were not as great an instance of impiety pro“ fanely to dissolve the religious' solemnities of any others,

as to be negligent in the observation of their own toward “ their gods. And let us now consider the one of these

practices : Is there any people or city, or community of

men, to whom your government and he Roman power “ does not appear to be the greatest blessing? Is there any

one that can desire to make void the favours they have granted? No one is certainly so mad; for there are no

men but such as have been partakers of their favours, s both public and private; and indeed those that take away

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