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all my will: Gr. all my wills. In which there is a plain view to Saul, who was partial in his obedience. to the will of God, (1 Sam. xv.) and upon that fcore loft the kingdom for him and his.
2. "That every part of that obedience should be "carried to the highest pitch and degree.' This the law required of them, as a condition of life; as our Lord himself fhewed unto the lawyer, Luke x. 27. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy foul, and with all thy ftrength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself. Verfe 28. This do, and thou shalt live. But it was a demand they could never have answered, fince Adam had fquandered away their stock of ability, and left them without ftrength. They might as foon have reached up their hands to the fun in the firmament, fo far above them, as have attained to the perfection of obedience demanded of them by the law. Wherefore it was agreed, that Christ should in their name obey the law in that perfection, being made under the law, as they were under it, Gal. iv. 5.; that every action of his should bear, not only a goodness of the matter, but of the manner too, and that in perfection; that love to God and man should flame in his holy human foul, to the utmost pitch required by the law; and so that debt owing by his feed, might be cleared by him, acting as a public man in their name.
3. Lastly, That all this fhould be continued to "the end, without the leaft failure in one jot of 66 parts or degrees of obedience." This alfo was a condition of life ftated in the first covenant: Gal. iii. 10. Curfed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to dò them. But it was a demand they could by no means anfwer; man's nature being fo vitiated by the fall, that if a thousand hells were lying upon it, the best on earth could not keep perfectly right one hour. Wherefore it was agreed, that the fecond Adam
fhould, in the name of thofe he reprefented, continue in all things written in the law to do them, even to the end, that he should not fail in his begun course of obedience, but run to the end of the race fet before him: that from the womb to the grave, his heart and life should shine in perfection of holinefs. All which he did accordingly fulfil, being obedient unto death, Philip, ii. 8.
HE former two were in the condition of Adam's covenant; but this was not in it: for while there was no fin, there was no place for fatisfaction for fin. But the new covenant behoved to be fettled on the condition of a fatisfaction for fin; because the broken law or covenant of works, infifted for it as a condition of life to finners in virtue of its penalty by them incurred. Howbeit, it was quite beyond their power to anfwer this demand of the law. If then the Mediator will have a feed brought from the ftate of death, into a state of life and falvation, he muft buy them from the hand of justice, telling down a price for every foul of them, 1 Cor. vi. 20. Accordingly, all the fins of every one of them, from the first fin they fhould be conceived and born in, to the last fin they should expire with, being forefeen of God from eternity, were fummed up as fo many breaches of the law or covenant of works: and it was made another conditionary article of the covenant, "That Christ, as a public perfon, fhould "fatisfy fully and completely for them all?" Ifa. liii. 6. The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all compared with Lev. xvi. 21. All the iniquities of the children of Ifrael, and all their tranfgreffions, in alt their fins.
Now, in this article there were three things eftablished, Fir,
Firft, "That Chrift, as a public perfon, fhould fa "tisfy for them by fuffering:" Luke xxiv. 26. Ought not Chrift to have fuffered? Sinners were liable to fuffer for the fatisfaction of juftice; and nothing but fuffering could be accepted, as a compenfation of the injury done by fin, to the honour of God, in the violating of his holy law. Thousands of rams, and ten thousands of rivers of oil, were at the Mediator's command: all the filver and gold, and the precious things of the earth and feas, were at his difpofal: but none of thefe could be of ufe in this bargain; they were all of no value, in a treaty for the redemption of the foul, Mic. vi. 6, 7, 8. 1 Pet. i. 18. His own fuffering could only avail here. That the Son of God fhould fuffer, was indeed an amazing propofal; but it was necessary, in order to fatisfy for our fin.
Secondly, "That he should fuffer the fame pu "nishment they should have fuffered in virtue of the "penalty of the broken covenant of works:" and that was death in its full latitude and extent. This ap pears from the penalty of that covenant, from which the debt of fatisfaction was ftated, In the day thou eateft thereof, thou fbalt furely die, Gen. ii. 17.; compared with Chrift's dying for, that is in the room and stead of finners, fo often mentioned in the fcrip tures, Rom. v. 8. 2 Cor. v. 14, 15. 1 Theff. v. 10. And it is confirmed from that the fcripture teacheth, that the all for whom Chrift died, died in him, 2 Cor. v. 14. If one died for all, then were all deads or, then they all died, to wit, in him; even as they finned, and became liable to death, in Adam. So faith the Apostle, I am crucified with Chrift, Gal. ii. 28.
For clearing of this purpose, two things are to be diftinguished in that death which was the penalty of the covenant of works. 1. What was effential to it, wrapt up in the very nature of the thing itself called death in the style of that covenant. And that may be comprised in thefe two: (1.) The curfe, (2.) In
finite execution; the former making the death legal, the latter making it real and fatisfactory. 2. What was accidental to it, arifing not from the nature of the thing in itself, but from the nature of the party dying that death. And this is of two forts. (1.) There is fomething arising from the nature of the dying party, as he is a mere creature: fuch as the eternity of the punishment, and despair of life, (2.) Something arifing from the nature of the dying party, as he is a finful creature, or a subject of inherent fin; fuch as the extinction of the faving relation betwixt God and the foul, the divesting it of God's image, and the corruption and diffolution of the body.
Now, the effentials of that death we fhould have fuffered in virtue of the penalty of the broken cove nant of works, were laid, as a part of the condition of the covenant of grace, on Jefus Chrift, to be fuffered by him, for us. For he was made a curfe for us, Gal. iii. 13. and gave himself for us, an offering and a facrifice to God for a fweet Smelling favour, Eph. v. 2. that is, a facrifice equalling the infinite offence arifing from our fin; whence he is faid, by one offering to have perfected for ever them that are fanctified, Heb. x. 14. But the accidentals of that death were no part of the condition of the covenant laid on him nor could they at all have place in him; fince he was neither a fubject of inherent fin, nor yet a mere creature. Nevertheless, it was still the fame death that we should have fuffered; forafmuch as the essentials were the fame. Thus the bo dies of the faints, which are now weak and corrup tible, shall at the refurrection be powerful and incorruptible, yet ftill the fame bodies; fince thefe quali ties are but accidental to a human body. So in the cafe of clearing debt, though the borrower could not pay it, but in a great quantity of copper-money, and that advanced by little and little for a long time; which withal would ruin him: yet, if his rich cau
tioner fhould pay all at once, in a little gold; it is evident, it would be the payment of the fame debt, providing only that it fully equalled the fum borrowed. Nay, confining our view to death itself, which is the general proper notion of the thing in question, let us put the cafe, that two men, equally guilty of the fame crime, are laid under one and the fame fenrence of death; and it is execute on them both; but the one is by a'miracle raised to life again, the other. lies and rots in the grave. It is evident in this case, that the death they died, is the fame death, answering the very fame estimate which the law made of the crime; and that therefore the death of the former satisfies the law, as well as the death of the latter, fo that it cannot reach his life again for that crime: howbeit, it is no lefs evident, that there is a huge difference between the death of the one and of the other, in accidentals, particularly in the duration or continuance of it. Wherefore, we conclude, that as Chrift gave the fame active obedience to the law which we fhould have given in virtue of the condition of the covenant of works: fo he fuffered the fame punishment of death that we should have fuffered in virtue of the penalty of that broken covenant: forafmuch as, whatever difference there was in accidentals, the ef fentials were the fame; it being laid on him, in the new covenant, to fuffer death for us, equalling the infinite offence arifing from our fins, being fully pro-. portionate to the estimate the law and justice of God had made of our crime.
And thus, acording to what is faid, two grand points were established in the conditonary part of
I. That the curfe of the law due to us for our "fin, fhould be transferred on him as the fecond "Adam, our reprefentative: whereby he should in"ftantly be a man dead in law for his feed." Either he or they behoved to bear the curfe: for it is writ