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lxxxix. 24. 29, 36.; and in which they are freed from the curfe, fo that it cannot reach them, notwithstanding of their failures; but the Lord deals with them as his children ftill, though offending children; ver. 30.--33.; and all by the means of Jefus Chrift the Saviour, the mighty One, ver. 19. This is the foundation of the whole building of mercy to finners in their low eftate, into which they were brought by Adam's fall. The revelation, promulgation, and offer made unto the fons of men, of this covenant which lay hid in the depths of the eternal counsel, is called the gofpel; the glad tidings of a new covenant for life and falvation to finners.
IL The parties-contractors in this covenant are, GOD, and his Chofen, the laft Adam: for it is evident from the nature of the things here fpoken of, ver. 3, 4. and from 2 Sam. vii. 8. that thefe words, I have made covenant with my Chofen, are the Lord's own words. Both heaven and earth were concerned in this covenant; for it was a covenant of peace between them and accordingly the interests of both are feen to by the parties contractors. 1. On heaven's fide is God himself, the party-propofer of the covenant, I have made a covenant with my Chofen. He was the offended party, yet the motion for a covenant of peace comes from him; a certain indication of the good will of the whole glorious Trinity towards the recovery of loft finners. The God and Father of our Lord Jefus Chrift, the Father of mercics, beholding a loft world, his mercy feeks a vent, that it may be shown to the miferable; but justice ftands in the way of the egrefs and building of mercy, without there be a covenant whereby it may be fatisfied. Then faith the Father, "The firft cove
nant will not ferve the purpose of mercy; there " must be a new bargain: but the loft creatures have "nothing left, to contract for themselves; unlefs a"nother take the burden upon him for them, there
"is no remedy in the cafe: they cannot chufe fuch an one for themselves; I will make a choice for "them, and make the covenant with my Chofen." 2. On man's fide, then is God's Chofen, or chosen One; for the word is fingular. This chofen One, in the type, the covenant of royalty, is David; but in the antitype, the covenant of grace, it is the Son of God, the laft Adam, even Chrift the chofen of God, Luke xxiii. 35. The truth is, fuch great things are faid of this party with whom this covenant was made, of his feed, and of the efficacy of this covenant, as can fully agree to none but Chrift and his fpiritual feed, verfe 4. 27. 29. 36, 37. The royal family of Judah, the houfe of David never recovered their ancient fplendor, after the Babylonifh captivity; with a view to which time, this Pfalm feems to have been penned. Their kingdom is extinct many ages ago; and the grandeur of that family, according to the flesh is quite funk. But the promise made to David in the covenant of royalty, ftill flourisheth, and will flourish for ever in Jefus Chrift, the topbranch of the family of David. How then can it be, but that, in the perpetual building of mercy, mentioned verse 2. and the establishing of David's feed, and building up his throne to all generations, verfe 4. Chrift himself is chiefly aimed at? And indeed he only was the mighty One, fit for the vast undertaking in this covenant, verfe 19. and him the Father points out to us, as his elect or chofen One, Ifa. xlii, 1.
III. As to the making of this covenant between the contracting parties: The Father made it with his own Son, I have made a covenant with my Chofen, and that before the world began, Tit. i. 2. By their mutual agreement thereto, this covenant was completely made from eternity, even as the covenant of works with the firft Adam was, before we were in being. The original text calls it cutting off a cove
nant; which phrafe is taken from that antient ufage of cutting off a beast, by cutting it affunder, at the making of a covenant, Jer. xxxiv. 18. It intimates this covenant to be a covenant by facrifice; wherein the party contractor on man's fide was the facrifice, and divine Juftice the fword that cut it affunder, according to Zech. xiii. 8. Awake, O fword, against my fhepherd, and against the man that is my fellow, faith the Lord of hofts: fmite the shepherd. And withal it imports the inviolablenefs and perpetuity of the covenant made; no more for ever to be diffolved, than the parts of the beaft cut off one from the other, to be joined together as formerly.
IV. For the nature of the covenant: There are five things belonging thereto that appear from the texts; namely, 1. The being of a representation in it; 2. The defign for which it was fet on foot; 3. That there are in it a condition, and 4. A promife; and 5. Into whofe hands the administration of it is put.
1. There is a representation taking place in this covenant. As it was in the firft covenant, fo it was likewife in the fecond; the party-contractor and undertaker on man's fide, was a reprefentative, reprefenting and sustaining the perfons of others. This appears, in that the chofen One with whom the covenant was made, is called the laft Adam: for it is plain, he is fo called in relation to the firft Adam, who was the figure (or type) of him, Rom. v. 14.; namely, in that likeas the firft Adam representing his feed in the covenant of works, brought fin and death on them; fo he reprefenting his, brings righteousness and life to them; as the Apostle teacheth at large in that chapter.
2. The defign of this covenant was life, the most valuable intereft of mankind. The last Adam was made a quickening Spirit, to wit, to give life to his feed. So it is a covenant of life, as the covenant of Levi, a type thereof, is exprefly called, Mal. ii. 5.
The first covenant was a covenant of life too; but there is this difference, to wit, that the first was for life in perfection to upright man having life before; the fecond, for life in perfection to finful man legally and morally dead. The parties contracted for in this fecond covenant, were confidered as under the bands of death, abfolutely void of life; and therefore utterly incapable to act for helping themselves. They lay like dry bones fcattered about the grave's mouth, before the parties-contractors; justice forbid. ding to give them life, but upon terms confiftent with and becoming to its honour.
3. The condition of the covenant, the terms of that life, agreed to by the reprefentative, is implied in that he was the laft Adam, namely, to go through with what the firft Adam had ftuck in. Adam, in the covenant of works, ftumbled in the courfe of his obedience, and fell; and by his fall was quite difabled to begin it anew: he thereby came under the penalty of that covenant alfo, but was utterly unable to discharge it. So the laft Adam cones in the room of the firft, not as the first Adam ftood in his inte. grity; for in that cafe there was no place for a fecond Adam; but as he lay a broken man under the firft bargain. And coming in his room in this cafe, his business was to fatisfy the demands of the first covenant, in behalf of his feed. Thefe demands were now run up high, quite beyond what they were to innocent Adam: the penalty was become payable, as well as the principal fum. Wherefore the first covenant being ingroffed in the fecond, is declared broken; and the principal and penalty being fummed up together, the clearing of the whole is laid upon the laft or fecond Adam, as the condition of the fecond covenant.
4. The promife of the covenant to be, upon that condition, performed by the party-contractor on Heaven's fide, is implied in thefe words, I have made
a covenant with (in the original, to) my chosen; that is, "I have made a covenant, binding and obliging "myself by folemn promise to my chofen One, for "fuch and fuch benefits, upon the condition there"in ftated and agreed to." Compare the following claufe, I have fworn unto David my fervant. The nature of this promife will be enquired into in the due place.
5. Lastly, The administration of this covenant is put into the hands of the party-contractor on man's fide: The laft Adam was made a quickening Spirit. Each of the contracting parties being God, it was not poffible that either party fhould fail, or that the last Adam fhould break, as the first had done. Whereupon the time of Chrift's fulfilling of the condition of the covenant being prefixed by the Father, God took Christ's single bond for fufficient fecurity, and thereupon constituted him Adminiftrator of the covenant. Those whom he reprefented, were confidered as being under death, which, in the language of the covenant, is a very extenfive term: the Spirit and life were to be purchased by him, and did belong to the promise of the covenant. So, upon the credit of his fulfilling the condition of the covenant in due time, the fulness of the Spirit, and eternal life, were lodged in him, to be commuricated by him: Rev. iii. 1. These things faith he that hath the feven Spirits of God. 1 John v. 11. God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. John xvii. 2. As thou haft given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life. Thus was he made a quickening Spirit.
Now the DOCTRINE of thefe texts thus compared and explained, is,
That the covenant of grace for life and falvation to loft finners of mankind, was made with JESUS CHRIST the laft ADAM; and be conftituted Adminiftrator of it.