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Now, Jefus Chrift the party-contractor on man's fide, in the covenant of grace, is, according to our texts, to be confidered in that matter as the last or fecond Adam, head and representative of a feed, loft finners of mankind, the party contracted for. And thus he fifted himself Mediator between an offended just God, and offending men guilty before him. In which point lay one main difference betwixt the first Adam and the last Adam: For there is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus; who gave himself a ransom, 1 Tim. ii. 5, 6. And fo the covenant of grace, which could not be made immediately with finners, was made with Chrift the last Adam, their head and reprefentative, mediating between God and them; therefore called Jefus the Mediator of the new covenant, to whom we come by believing, Heb. xii. 22. 24.
The term Mediator is not, to my obfervation, applied in the holy fcripture to any other, except Mofes, Gal. iii. 19. The law-was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. And of him, a typical mediator, it is worth obferving, that he was not only an inter-messenger between God and Ifrael; but, in God's renewing his covenant, in a way of reconciliation, after the breaking of the tables, the covenant was made with him, as their head and representative, Exod. xxxiv. 27. And the Lord faid unto Mofes, Write thou these words; for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Ifrael. This refers unto the gracious answer made to Moses's prayer, verfe 9. Pardon our iniquity, and our fin, and take us for thine inheritance, verfe 10. And he (namely the Lord) faid, Behold, I make a covenant : before all thy people I will do marvels, &c. verfe 28. And he wrote upon the tables (to wit, the new ones) the words of the covenant, the ten commandments. Now, Mofes was alone on the mount with God during the whole time of this tranfaction; and in
it the Lord fpeaks of him and the people as one all along.
For clearing of this purpose anent the party-contractor on man's fide, I fhall 1. evince, That the covenant of grace was made with Chrift as the last Adam, head and reprefentative of a feed; and 2. fhew why it was fo made.
First, That the covenant of grace, the fecond covenant, was made with Chrift as the laft or second Adam, head and reprefentative of a feed, to wit, his fpiritual feed, appears from the following confiderations.
1. Covenants typical of the covenant of grace were made or established with perfons reprefenting their refpective feed. Thus it was in the typical covenant in our text, the covenant of royalty made with David, an undoubted type of the covenant of grace. In it David was God's fervant, having a feed comprehended with him therein, Pfalm lxxxix. 3, 4. He was an eminent type of Chrift; who is therefore called David, Hof. iii. 5. Afterwards fhall the children of Ifrael return, and feek the Lord their God, and David their king. And the benefits of the covenant of grace are called the fure mercies of David, Ifa. Iv. 3. Thus was it alfo in the covenant of the day and night, (Jer. xxxiii. 20.) established with Noah and his fons, representatives of their feed, the new world, Gen. ix. 9. Behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your feed after you. And that this covenant was a type of the covenant of grace, appears, from its being made upon a facrifice, Chap. viii. 20, 21, 22. and from the fign and token of it, the rainbow, chap. ix. 13. appearing round about the throne, Rev. iv. 3. but especially from the nature and import of it, to wit, that there should not be another deluge, Gen. ix. 11. the fubftance of which is plainly declared, Ifa. liv. 9. As I have fworn that the waters of Noah fhall no more go over the earth; fo have I fworn, that I would not be wroth with thee, nor re
buke thee. verfe 10. For the mountains fhall depart, and the hills be removed, but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither fhall the covenant of my peace be removed, faith the Lord, that hath mercy on thee. And fuch alfo was the covenant of the land of Canaan, made with Abraham, representing his feed, Gen. xv. 18, and afterwards confirmed by oath, chap. xxii, 16, 17. In all which he was an eminent type of Chrift, the true Abraham, father of the multitude of the faithful, who, upon God's call, left heaven, his native country, and came and fojourned among the curfed race of mankind, and there offered up his own flesh and blood a facrifice unto God, and fo became the true heir of the world, and received the promises for his fpiritual feed; the fum whereof is given by Zacharias, in his account of the covenant with Abraham, Luke i. 72. To remember his holy cove nant, ver. 73, the oath which he fware to our father Abraham, ver. 74. that he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, might ferve him without fear, ver. 75. in holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life. And finally, thus it was in the covenant of everlasting priesthood made with Phinehas, another type of the covenant of grace. In it Phinehas stood a reprefentative of his feed, Numb. xxv. 13. And he shall have it, and his feed after him, even the covenant of an everlasting priesthood; because he was zealous for his God, and made an atonement for the children of Ifrael. And therein he typified Jefus Chrift, reprefenting his fpiritual feed in the covenant of grace; for it is evident, that as in Chrift, who made the great atonement for finners, the everlafting priesthood promifed to Phinehas, hath its full accomplishment, his fpiritual feed partaking of the fame in him; according to Pfal. cx. 4. Thou art a priest for ever. Rev. i. 6. And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father.
Now, forafmuch as these typical covenants were made or established with parties ftanding therein as public perfons, heads, and reprefentatives of their feed; it natively follows, that the covenant of grace typified by them, was made with Chrift as the head and reprefentative of his fpiritual feed: for whatfoever is attributed to any perfon or thing as a type, hath its accomplishment really and chiefly in the perfon or thing typified.
2. Our Lord Jefus Chrift being, in the phrafeology of the holy Ghoft, the laft Adam, the reafon hereof cannot be taken from the nature common to the first Adam and him; for all mankind partake of that; but from their common office of federal headship and reprefentation, in the refpective covenants touching man's eternal happiness; the which is peculiar unto Adam, and the man CHRIST. Accordingly, Adam is called the first man, and Christ the fecond man, I Cor. xv. 47.; but Chrift is no otherwife the fecond man, than as he is the fecond federal head, or the reprefentative in the fecond covenant; as Adam was the first federal head, or the reprefentative in the first covenant. Agreeable to which, the Apostle reprefents Adam as the head of the earthly men, and Chrift as the head of the heavenly men, ver. 48.; the former being those who bear Adam's image, namely, all his natural feed; the latter, those who partake of the image of Christ, namely, his fpiritual feed, ver. 49. All this is confirmed from Adam's being a figure or type of Christ, which the Apostle exprefly afferts, Rom. v. 14., and from the parallel he draws betwixt them two, namely, that as by Adam's covenant-breaking, fin and death came on all that were his, fo by Chrift's covenant-keeping, righteoufnefs and life came to all that are his, verfe 17, 18, 19. Wherefore, as the firft covenant was made with Adam as the head and representative of his natural feed, fo the fecond co
venant was made with Christ as the head and reprefentative of his spiritual feed.
3. As the first man was called Adam, that is to fay, man; he being the head and reprefentative of mankind, the Perfon in whom God treated with all men, his natural feed, in the first covenant; and on the other hand, all men therein reprefented by him, do, in the language of the holy Ghost, go under the name of Adam, Pfal. xxxix. 5. 11. Surely every man (in the original it is, all Adam) is vanity: fo Christ bears the name of his spiritual feed, and they, on the other hand, bear his name; à plain evidence of their being one in the eye of the law, and of God's treating with him as their representative in the fecond covenant. Ifrael in the name of the fpiritual feed, Rom. ix. 6.; and our Lord Jesus Christ is called by the fame name, Ifa. xlix. 3. Thou art my fervant, O Ifrael, in whom I will be glorified; as feveral learned and judicious commentators do underftand it; and is evident from the whole context, verse 1, 2, 4,-9. The truth is, Chrift is here fo called with a peculiar folemnity; for the original text ftands precifely thus: Thou art my fervant; If rael, in whom I will glorify myself: that is, thou art Ifrael's reprefentative, in whom I will glorify myfelf, and make all mine attributes illuftrious; as I was dishonoured, and they darkened, by Ifrael the collective body of the fpiritual feed. And this leads us to a natural and unftrained interpretation of that paffage, Pfal. xxiv. 6. This is the generation of them that feek him, that feek thy face, O Jacob: that is, in other words, that long for the appearing (Prov. vii. 15. Gen. xxxii. 39.) of the Meffias, the Lord whom the old Testament church did fo feek; a pledge of whofe coming to his temple, (Mal. iii. 1.) was the bringing in of the ark into the tabernacle that David had erected for it, on which occasion that Pfalm was penned. Accordingly it follows immediately, ver. 7.