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ther, he fo ftood related to heaven, and having from eternity confented to become man, he fo flood related to earth: for though he did not actually take on him the nature of man until the fulness of time appointed by the Father; yet forafmuch as he had from eternity confented to take it on, and it was impoffible that his confent fhould mifs to take effect, he was reckoned in law, to all intents and purpofes thereof, as if he had actually been incarnate. A type of this his fubftantial mediation was Jacob's ladder, which was set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven, Gen. xxviii. 12. A clear emblem of the divine and human nature in Chrift, thro' whom," as fubftantial Mediator, there was a way opened towards a communication for peace between heaven and earth. Accordingly our Lord Jefus applies it to himself; John i. 51. Hereafter you shall fee heaven open, and the angels of God afcending and defcending upon the Son of man; to wit, as on Jacob's ladder, Gen. xxviii. 12.
2. The Father chose him to be the head of the election; to be the laft Adam, federal head and reprefentative of fuch as fovereign pleasure thould pitch upon to be veffels of mercy, and inrolled in the book of life; a head and reprefentative with whom he might make the new covenant for life and falvation to them.
And to this alfo he readily agreed, confenting to be the last or fecond Adam, head and reprefentative of the election; to sustain their perfons, and tranfact in their name: Ifa. xlii.. 1. Behold---mine elect in whom my foul delighteth. Pfalm lxxxix. 19. I have exalted one chofen out of the people. 1 Cor. xv. 47. The fecond man is the Lord from heaven." The breach between God and man was greater than to be done away by a mere intermeffenger, who travelling between parties at variance, reconciles them with bare words. There could be no covenant of peace betwixt God D 3 and
and finners without reparation of damages done to the honour of God through fin, and without honouring of the holy law by an exact obedience: but these things being quite beyond their reach, Chrift the Son of God faith, "Lo, I come; I am content to "take their place, and put myself in their room as " a fecond Adam."
Now, the effect of this was, that hereby he was conftituted laft Adam, or the fecond Man, I Cor. xv. 47.; and official Mediator, or Mediator in refpect of office, between God and man, 1 Tim. ii. 5, 6. There is one God, and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Chrift Jefus: who gave himself a ranfem for all. Being called of his Father unto that office, and having embraced the call thereto, he was invested with the office, and treated with as fuch, before the world began, Tit. i. 2. And indeed he, and he only, was fit for it. The two families of heaven and earth being at war, there could be no peace between them but through a Mediator. But where could a mediator be found to interpose between fuch parties who could not either have been too high, or elfe too low, in refpect of one of the parties at variance? Man or angels would have been too low, in refpect of God; and an unvailed God would have been too high, in refpect of finful men, unable to bear intercourfe with fuch heavenly majefty. Wherefore the Son of God, that he might be fit to mediate; as he being God equal with the Father, was high enough in respect of the party offended: fo he confented to become low enough, in refpect of the party offending, by his becoming man.
Secondly, It is to be enquired, How the covenant was made with Chrift as fecond Adam? And this alfo may be taken up in two things.
1. The Father defigned a certain number of lost mankind, as it were by name, to be conftituent members of that body chofen to life, of which body
Chrift was the defigned head; and he gave them to him for that end: Philip. iv. 3. My fellow-labourers, whofe names are in the book of life. John xvii. 6. Thine they were, and thou gavest them me. Thefe were a chofen company, whom fovereign free grace picked out from among the reft of mankind, on a purpose of love, and gave to the fecond Adam for a feed; on which account they are faid to have been chofen in him, Eph. i. 4; being in the decree of election laid upon him as the foundation ftone, to be built upon him, and obtain falvation by him, 1 Thef. v. 9.; which decree, as it relates to the memberselect, is therefore called the book of life, being as it were the roll which the Father gave to the fecond Adam, the head-elect, containing the names of thofe defigned to be his feed, to receive life by him.
Now, our Lord Jefus ftanding as fecond Adam, head of the election, to wit, fuch as fovereign pleafure fhould pitch upon to be veffels of mercy, did accept of the gift of the particular perfons elected or chofen by his Father: John xvii. 6. Thine they were, and thou gavest them me. Verfe 10. And thine are mine. Likeas the firft Adam, in the making of the firft covenant, ftood alone without actual iffue, yet had deftinated for him a numerous iffue, to be comprehended with him in that covenant, to wit, all mankind; the which Adam did at leaft virtually accept: fo a certain number of loft mankind being elected to life, God, as their original proprietor, gave them to Chrift the appointed head, to be his members, and comprehended with him in the fecond covenant, tho' as yet none of them were in being; and he accepted of the gift of them, being well pleafed to take them in particular for his body myftical, for which he fhould covenant with his Father. And, in token thereof, he, as it were, received and kept as his own the book of life containing their names, which is therefore called, the Lamb's book of life, Rev. xxi. 27.
2. The Father proposed to him as fecond Adam, the new covenant for life and falvation to them, in the full tenor, promifes, and condition thereof; treating in him with all thofe particular perfons of loft mankind, elected unto life, and given to him, even as he treated with all mankind in Adam in the firft covenant. The promises therein propofed,, were indeed great and glorious: but withal the condition, or terms on which they were propofed, were exceeding high.
Howbeit, as the firft Adam, ftanding as head and reprefentative of all his natural feed, entered into the first covenant with God, accepting the promise thereof, upon the terms and condition therein propofed, which he engaged to fulfil; fo our Lord Jefus, ftanding as fecond Adam, head and reprefentative of the particular perfons of loft mankind, by name elected to life, and given to him as his fpiritual feed, entered into the second covenant with his Father; accepting the promises thereof, upon the terms and condition therein propofed; confenting and engaging to fulfil the fame, for them. And thus the covenant of grace was made, and concluded, betwixt the Father and Chrift the fecond Adam, from all eternity; being the second covenant, in refpect of order and manifeftation to the world, though it was first in being: 1 Cor. xv. 47. The fecond man is the Lord from heaven. Ifa. liii, 10. When thou shalt make his foul an offering for fin, he fhall fee his feed. Tit. ii. 2. In hope of eternal life, which God that cannot lye, promifed before the world began. Pfalm xl. 6. Sacrifice and offering thou didsft not defire, mine ears haft thou opened.-7. Then faid I, Lo, I come.8. I delight to da thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart.
Now, Christ the second Adam, giving this confent took upon him a threefold character, of unparalleled weight and importance; fifting himself, (1.) The Kinfman Redeemer in the covenant. (2.) The Surety of
of the covenant, and (3.) The Priest of the covenant. The mediation of Chrift doth indeed run thro' the whole of the covenant. And there are feveral other parts of that mediation, which refpecting the promises of the covenant, do belong to the adminiftration thereof. But thefe I have now entioned, do refpect the condition of the covenant, and fo belong to the making thereof; under which head we fhall confider them in order.
1. Chrift the Kinfman-Redeemer in the Covenant. UR Lord Jefus Chrift, the fecond Adam, giv ing his confent to the covenant, as propofed to him by the Father, fifted himfelf Kinfman-redeemer in the covenant: Job xix. 25. I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall ftand at the latter day upon the earth.
Under the law, when a man was not able to act for himself, to affert and ufe his own right, one that was akin to him, had a right to act for him, coming in his room, and ftanding up in his right. And fuch a one was called his Goel; which properly fignifies a kinfman-redeemer. Hence that word is fometimes rendered a kinfman; as Numb. v. 8. If the man have no (Goel) kinfman to recompence the trefpafs unto. Ruth iii. 12. I am thy (Goel) near kinfman: howbeit there is a (Goel) kinfman nearer than I. Sometimes it is rendered a redeemer; as Prov. xxiii. 11. Their (Goel) Redeemer is mighty, Ifa. xlvii. 4. As for our (Goel) Redeemer, the Lord of hofts is his name. One's acting in that capacity, is called, doing the kinfman's part, or redeeming, to wit, by right of kin, Ruth iii. 13. and iv. 6. Howbeit, fuch a one might refufe to do the kinfman's part; as Ruth's kinfman-redeemer did, who refigned his right to Boaz, and in token thereof drew off his own fhoe, and gave it him, Ruth iv. 6, 7, 8.
Now, Chrift the fecond Adam faw finners, his