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never buried until it has been torn by some bird or dog ; but I know for a certainty that the Magi do this, for they do it openly. The Persians then, having covered the body with wax, conceal it in the ground. The Magi differ very much from all other men, and particularly from the Egyptian priests; for the latter hold it matter of religion not to kill any thing that has life, except such things as they offer in sacrifice; whereas the Magi kill every thing with their own hands, except a dog or a man; and they think they do a meritorious thing when they kill ants, serpents, and other reptiles, and birds. And with regard to this custom, let it remain as it existed from the first. I will now return to my former subject.

141. The Ionians and Æolians, as soon as the Lydians were subdued by the Persians, sent embassadors to Cyrus at Sardis, wishing to become subject to him on the same terms as they had been to Croesus. But he, when he heard their proposal, told them this story: “A piper, seeing some fishes in the sea, began to pipe, expecting that they would come to shore; but finding his hopes disappointed, he took a castingnet, and inclosed a great number of fishes, and drew them out. When he saw them leaping about, he said to the fishes, 'Cease your dancing, since when I piped you would not come out and dance.'Cyrus told this story to the Ionians and Æolians, because the Ionians, when Cyrus pressed them, by his embassador, to revolt from Croesus, refused to consent; and now, when the business was done, were ready to listen to him. He, therefore, under the influence of anger, gave them this answer. But the Ionians, when they heard this message brought back to their cities, severally fortified themselves with walls, and met together at the Panionium, with the exception of the Milesians; for Cyrus made an alliance with them only, on the same terms as the Lydians had done. The rest of the Ionians resolved unanimously to send embassadors to Sparta, to implore them to succor the Ionians. 142. The Ionians, to whom the Panionium belongs, have built their cities under the finest sky and climate of the world that we know of; for neither the regions that are above it, nor those that are below, nor the parts to the east or west, are at all equal to Ionia; for some of them are oppressed by cold and rain, others by heat and drought. These Ionians do not all use the same language, but have four varieties of dialect. Miletus, the first of

them, lies toward the south ; next are Myus and Priene: these are situate in Caria, and use the same dialect. The following are in Lydia: Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomena, Phocæa. These cities do not at all agree with those before mentioned in their language, but they speak a dialect common to themselves. There are three remaining of the Ionian cities, of which two inhabit islands, Samos and Chios; and one, Erythræ, is situated on the continent. Now the Chians and Erythræans use the same dialect, but the Samians have one peculiar to themselves. And these are the four different forms of language.

143. Of these Ionians, the Milesians were sheltered from danger, as they had made an alliance. The islanders also had nothing to fear; for the Phænicians were not yet subject to the Persians, nor were the Persians themselves at all acquainted with maritime affairs. Now the Milesians had seceded from the rest of the Ionians only for this reason, that, weak as the Grecian race then was, the Ionian was weakest of all, and of least account; for, except Athens, there was no other city of note. The other Ionians, therefore, and the Athenians, shunned the name, and would not be called Ionians; and even now many of them appear to me to be ashamed of the name. But these twelve cities gloried in the name, and built a temple for their own use, to which they gave the name of Panionium; and they resolved not to communicate privileges to any other of the Ionians; nor, indeed, have any others, except the Smyrnæans, desired to participate in them. 144. In the same manner, the Dorians of the present Pentapolis, which was before called Hexapolis, take care not to admit any of the neighboring Dorians into the temple at Triopium, but excluded from participation such of their own community as have violated the sacred laws; for in the games in honor of Triopian Apollo, they formerly gave brazen tripods to the victors; and it was usual for those who gained them, not to carry them out of the temple, but to dedicate them there to the god : however, a man of Halicarnassus, whose name was Agasicles, having won the prize, disregarded their custom, and, carrying away the tripod, hung it up in his own house. For this offense, the five cities, Lindus, Ialyssus, Cameirus, Cos, and Cnidus, excluded the sixth city, Halicarnassus, from participation; on them, therefore, they imposed

this punishment. 145. The Ionians appear to me to have formed themselves into twelve cities, and to have refused to admit more, for the following reason : because, when they dwelt in Peloponnesus, there were twelve divisions of them, as now there are twelve divisions of Achæans, who drove out the Ionians. Pellene is the first toward Sicyon; next, Ægyra and Æge, in which is the overflowing river Crathis, from which the river in Italy derived its name; then Bura and Helice, to which the Ionians fled when they were defeated by the Achæans; Ægium, Rhypes, Patrees, Pharees, and Olenus, in which is the great river Pirus; lastly, Dyma and Tritæes, the only inland places among them. 146. These now are the twelve divisions of the Achæans, which formerly belonged to the Ionians; and, on that account, the Ionians erected twelve cities; for to say that these are more properly Ionians, or of more noble origin than other Ionians, would be great folly, since the Abantes, from Euboea, who had no connection, even in name, with Ionia, are no inconsiderable part of this colony; and Minyan-Orchomenians are intermixed with them, and Cadmæans, Dryopians, Phocians (who separated themselves from the rest of their countrymen), and Molossians, Pelasgians of Arcadia, Dorian Epidaurians, and many other people, are intermixed with them; and those of them who set out from the Prytaneum of Athens, and who deem themselves the most noble of the Ionians, brought no wives with them when they came to settle in this country, but seized a number of Carian women after they had killed their men; and on account of this massacre, these women established a law, and imposed on themselves an oath, and transmitted it to their daughters, that they would never eat with their husbands, nor ever call them by the name of husband, because they had killed their fathers, their husbands, and their children, and then, after so doing, had forced them to become their wives. This was done in Miletus. 147. The Ionians appointed kings to govern them ; some choosing Lycians, of the posterity of Glaucus, son of Hippolochus; others Cauconian Pylians, descended from Codrus, son of Melanthus; others, again, from both those families. However, they are more attached to the name of Ionians than any others; let it be allowed, then, that they are genuine Ionians. Still, all are Ionians who derive their original from Athens, and celebrate the Apaturian festival; but all do so except the Ephesians and Colophonians; for these alone do not celebrate the Apaturian festival, on some pretext of a murder. 148. The Panionium is a sacred place in Mycale, looking to the north, and by the Ionians consecrated in common to Heliconian Neptune; and Mycale is a headland on the continent, stretching westward toward Samos. At this place the Ionians, assembling from the various cities, were accustomed to celebrate the festival to which they gave the name of Panionia; and not only do the festivals of the Ionians, but the festivals of all the Greeks terminate, like the Persian names, 8 in the same letter. These, then, are the Ionian cities.

149. The following are the Æolian: Cyme, called also Phriconis, Larissæ, Neon-teichos, Temnos, Cilla, Notium, Ægiroessa, Pitane, Ægææ, Myrina, and Grynia. These are eleven of the ancient cities of the Æolians; for one of them, Smyrna, was taken away from them by the Ionians; for they too had twelve cities on the continent. These Æolians have settled in a more fertile country than the Ionians, but not equal in climate. 150. The Æolians lost Smyrna in the following manner. They received into their city certain Colophonians, who were unsuccessful in a sedition and driven from their country. But, some time after, the Colophonian exiles, having watched the opportunity while the Smyrnæans were celebrating a festival to Bacchus outside the walls, shut to the gates, and seized the city. But when all the Æolians came to the assistance of the Smyrnæans, an agreement was made that the Ionians should restore the movable property, and that the Æolians should abandon Smyrna. When the Smyrnæans did this, the other eleven cities distributed them among themselves, and gave them the privilege of citizens. 151. These, then, are the Æolian cities on the continent, besides those settled on Mount Ida; for these are altogether distinct. But of those that occupy islands, five cities are situated in Lesbos; for the sixth in Lesbos, Arisba, the Methymnæans reduced to slavery, although they were of kindred blood; one city is situated in Tenedos, and another in what are called the Hundred Islands. Accordingly, the Lesbians and Tenedians, as well as the Ionians of the islands, had nothing to fear; but

8 See ch. 130.

all the other cities resolved with one accord to follow the Ionians, wherever they should lead the way.

152. When the embassadors of the Ionians and Æolians arrived at Sparta (for this was done with all possible speed), they made choice of a Phocæan, whose name was Pythermus, to speak in behalf of all; he then, having put on a purple robe, in order that as many as possible of the Spartans might hear of it and assemble, and having stood forward, addressed them at length, imploring their assistance. But the Lacedæmonians would not listen to him, and determined not to assist the Ionians: they therefore returned home. Nevertheless, the Lacedæmonians, though they had rejected the Ionian embassadors, dispatched men in a penteconter, as I conjecture, to keep an eye upon the affairs of Cyrus and Ionia. These men, arriving in Phocæa, sent the most eminent person among them, whose name was Lacrines, to Sardis, to warn Cyrus, in the name of the Lacedæmonians, not to injure any city on the Grecian territory, for in that case they would not pass it by unnoticed.” 153. When the herald gave this message, it is related that Cyrus inquired of the Grecians who were present who the Lacedæmonians were, and how many in number, that they sent him such a warning. And when informed, he said to the Spartan herald, “I was never yet afraid of those who in the midst of their city have a place set apart in which they collect and cheat one another by false oaths; and if I continue in health, not the calamities of the Ionians shall be talked about, but their own.” This taunt of Cyrus was leveled at the Grecians in general, who have markets for the purposes of buying and selling; for the Persians themselves are not accustomed to use markets, nor have they such a thing as a market. After this, Cyrus, having intrusted Tabalus, a Persian, with the government of Sardis, and appointed Pactyas, a Lydian, to bring away the gold, both that belonging to Croesus and to the other Lydians, took Crosus with him, and departed for Ecba-, tana, for from the first he took no account of the Ionians. But Babylon was an obstacle to him, as were also the Bactrians, the Sacæ, and the Egyptians; against whom he resolved to lead an army in person, and to send some other general against the Ionians. 154. But as soon as Cyrus had marched from Sardis, Pactyas prevailed on the Lydians to revolt from Tabalus and Cyrus; and going down to the sea-coast with all

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