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appearance of having been made by one who, though he understood his author, contented himself with merely removing Littlebury's grosser faults, without attempting to correct him uniformly and throughout. The fourth and most elegant version was that by Mr. Isaac Taylor; which, however, has met with less notice than its merit deserves, probably owing to the circumstance that the usually received division by chapters has been departed from, whereby the facility of reference has been much diminished, and also because, in too many instances, the translator has sacrificed the meaning of his author to purity of thought or elegance of diction. The last English version was that by Laurent, in making which the translator labored under the twofold disadvantage of being an inaccurate Greek scholar, and a far worse English

Nor can the present translator hope to be free from some defect, equal perhaps in extent to those which. he has pointed out in his predecessors. His object, however, has been to keep as closely to the sense of his author as the idioms of the two languages would allow. He has adopted throughout the readings of Baehr, and, except in some few instances, which are pointed out in the notes, his interpretation also.

H. C. Oxford, Nov. 10th, 1847.


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This is a publication of the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, in order that the actions of men may not be effaced by time, nor the great and wondrous deeds displayed both by Greeks and barbarians? deprived of renown; and among the rest, for what cause they waged war upon each other.

1. The learned among the Persians assert that the Phoenicians were the original authors of the quarrel ; for that they having migrated from that which is called the Red Sea to the Mediterranean,2 and having settled in the country which they now inhabit, forthwith applied themselves to distant voyages; and that having exported Egyptian and Assyrian merchandise, they touched at other places, and also at Argos. Now Argos at that period in every respect surpassed all those states which are now comprehended under the general appellation of Greece. They say that on their arrival at Argos, the Phænicians exposed their merchandise to sale, and that on the fifth or sixth day after their arrival, and when

By barbarians the Greeks meant all who were not sprung from themselves—all foreigners.

* The Phænicians passed over land (see b. VII. c. 89) from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean, which in the text and in other Grecian wri. ters is called “this sea."

3 The region known by the name of Hellas or Greece in the time of Herodotus was, previous to the Trojan war, and indeed long afterward, only discriminated by the names of its different inhabitants. Homer speaks of the Danaans, Argives, Achaians, &c., but never gives these people the general name of Greeks.-Larcher.



they had almost disposed of their cargo, a great number of women came down to the sea-shore, and among them the king's daughter, whose name, as the Greeks also say, was Io, daughter of Inachus. They add, that while these women were standing near the stern of the vessel, and were bargaining for such things as most pleased them, the Phænicians, having exhorted one another, made an attack upon them ; and that most of the women escaped, but that Io, with some others, was seized; and that they, having hurried them on board, set sail for Egypt. 2. Thus the Persians say that Io went to Egypt, not agreeing herein with the Phænicians; and that this was the beginning of wrongs. After this, that certain Grecians (for they are unable to tell their name), having touched at Tyre in Phænicia, carried off the king's daughter Europa. These must have been Cretans. Thus far they say that they. had only retaliated ;4 but that after this the Greeks were guilty of the second provocation ; for that having sailed down in a vessel of war5 to Æa, a city of Colchis on the river Phasis, when they had accomplished the more immediate object of their expedition, they carried off the king's daughter Medea ; and that the king of Colchis, having dispatched a herald to Greece, demanded satisfaction for the rape, and the restitution of the princess; but the Greeks replied, that as they of Asia had not given any satisfaction for the rape of Io, neither would they give any to them. 3. They say, too, that in the second generation after this, Alexander, the son of Priam, having heard of these events, was desirous of obtaining a wife from Greece by means of violence, being fully persuaded that he should not have to give satisfaction, for that the Greeks had not done so. When, therefore, he had carried off Helen, they say that the Greeks immediately sent messengers to demand her back again, and require satisfaction for the rape; but that they, when they brought forward these demands, objected to them the rape of Medea ; " that they who had not themselves given satisfaction, nor made it when demanded, now wished others to give it to themselves.” 4. Thus far then they say that there had only been rapes from each other ; but that after this the Greeks were greatly

• Literally, “had only done like for like.”

S“In a long vessel.” The long vessels were vessels of war; the round vessels, merchantmen and transports.

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