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independence and excitement of the life offer inducements to engage in fishing which cannot be resisted.

Halibut are caught with hook and line or with trawls much as cod are, for both are fish that live at the sea bottom and cannot be taken with seines. Some of the halibut weigh several hundred pounds. Most of them are sold fresh, but a considerable amount of salted halibut is smoked by being hung for several days in smoke houses where fires of oak chips are burning.

Many of the schooners leave port well supplied with ice and bring back their fish packed in it. From the vessels the fish are transferred to cold storage plants and are sent away in refrigerator cars so that they are kept fresh for weeks or months. Nearly all of the cod, however, arrive from the fishing-grounds salted in the holds of the vessels. They are taken out, split, and put to soak in hogsheads of brine on the wharf. Later they are spread to dry on flakes, which are slatted benches that allow the air to reach both sides of the fish. The process requires about a week and reduces a five-pound fish to two pounds. After the fish have been thoroughly dried they will not spoil for a long time, and they are sent away to be sold as salted codfish or the skin and bones are carefully removed, and the flesh is packed in boxes and marketed as boneless or shredded cod.

Another important food fish is the mackerel. They swim together near the surface in large schools of many thousands. The fishermen cruise about after them in their swift two-masted schooners. When the lookout sights a good-sized school, the crew leap into the great seine boats and extend a net in front of the fish. Then they bring the ends together behind the school. The upper side of the net is supported by cork floats and the lower side is kept down by lead weights. The school may sink and escape, but all hands strain at a rope which passes through pulleys at the under edge of the net. Soon the net is pulled together into a great pocket, and the mackerel are entrapped. The schooner then comes alongside, and by means of dipnets the fish are taken on board.

The mackerel are pursued by larger fish, among which the swordfish and bluefish are the most valuable. They disappear in winter, and where they go is a mystery; but the next year they appear coming shoreward as the surface waters get warmer.

When a vessel goes after swordfish, the crew locate their prey by the dorsal fins, which appear above the surface as the fish swim along. The moment one of these fins is sighted the vessel starts in pursuit, and, when close enough, a man on a little platform at the prow harpoons the fish. Away the wounded creature goes, and men in dories follow and despatch it. Occasionally a swordfish turns on its pursuers and jabs its weapon through their boat. After that, they reach their vessel as best they can.

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EXT to Plymouth the oldest place in New Eng

land is Salem, “The Witch City.” It was begun in 1626 by a little band of English farmers and fishermen, who moved to the spot from the bleak shores of Cape Ann. Two years later they were joined by Captain John Endicott and a hundred adventurers from England.

At first the place retained its Indian name of Naumkeag, and then the settlers called it Salem, which means peace. It was on a neck of land between two rivers, and the colonists crossed the streams in canoes that they made by hollowing out pine logs. The canoes were about two and a half feet broad and twenty feet long, and in them the settlers would sometimes go fowling as much as two leagues out to sea. Every household had one or two of these water-horses.

For a long time Salem ranked next to Boston as the largest and richest place in New England. It was a great seaport and a centre for the coast fisheries. At the age of fourteen the Salem boy of those days began sea life in the cabin of his father's vessel. In his twenties he was likely to become a captain, and a score of years later he retired to a stately mansion in his native place. Swarthy, tattooed sailors with gold rings in their ears were seen month after month unloading from the great Indiamen bales of merchandise fragrant with the spicy odors of far-away lands. Every voyage of these big ships had possibilities of perilous storms, and encounters with pirates and cannibals, and their going and coming were fraught with a spirit of mystery and adventure.

Later, when the Salem shipping had declined, some of the mariners still lingered about the waterside reeling off the saltiest salt tales of the town's grand old times,


accompanied by a shake of the head at the change, with good ships and warehouses rotting, and nothing but landlubbers about.

As shipping declined manufacturing came in, and a large business has developed in the making of cotton goods, machinery, shoes, and lumber products.

One of the most interesting of Salem's colonial relics is the little church built for Roger Williams, who came to the settlement to be its pastor when it was three years old. The size of the building, 17 by 20 feet, makes one somewhat doubtful of the familiar statement that everybody went to church in those times. It was not only a house of worship, but the place where the colonial government held some of its meetings, and the structure was also used for a watch-house. When a new meeting-house was erected the old one served for a schoolhouse.

Another building that all strangers wish to see is “The Witches' House." This was the residence of one of the judges before whom appeared for examination those poor creatures who were accused of being witches. Belief in witches was at that time quite common, and they were said to make frequent journeys along the coast riding on broomsticks. The delusion created more turmoil with more fatal results at Salem than anywhere else in the colonies, yet its tragic period there lasted only about six months in the year 1692. The excitement started in the minister's family in February. His two little girls acted strangely, and accused


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