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houses may be counted. There is a curious engraving of the English fort at Bombay, and another by Merian of the city of Hanover. There is the palace of St. Germain-en-Laye at which the hospitable Louis lodged James and his exiled family. There is an engraving of Grocers' Hall, long occupied by the Bank of England, and a view of the Tower of London not much changed in two hundred years. Several old maps offer quaint guidance : one of Greenland, from Churchill's Voyages, 1704, and another of New Caledonia, where the Scots made their ill-fated settlement of Darien.
More difficult to obtain, and perhaps more interesting to the general reader, are contemporary pictures or caricatures. A broadside in the Sutherland Collection shows John and Cornelius De Witt murdered by a mob at the Hague. The monstrous chin and strange countenance of Titus Oates are best known now from pictures listed in the Catalogue of Satirical Prints in the British Museum. One of them shows “friend Oates' behind the Pope discovering his secrets. A Dutch engraving shows Oates flogged at the cart's tail and also standing in the pillory. A contemporary print has Edward Coleman dragged to the gallows where a criminal is being drawn, and from a broadside in possession of the editor we see the execution of Viscount Stafford. From the frontispiece of a book published in 1720 one learns the frightful tortures and persecutions of the Scottish Covenanters in the reign of James II. There are contemporary caricatures to illustrate the dragonnades and also the death of Calvinism in France. In a Dutch engraving the Seven Bishops are seen on their way down the Thames to the Tower. An Italian engraving displays the birth of the Prince of Wales about the same time. Many Englishmen then believed that the child was not really the son of the king and the queen, but was brought to the palace secretly in order that James might have a Catholic heir : an old drawing in the Crace Collection shows the way this was supposed to have been done. A satirical print about Father Petre, the queen, and the Prince of Wales makes plain the belief that Jesuits influenced affairs of state in this reign. The departure of the great fleet in which William set sail for England is shown in a painting at Hampton Court by an unknown artist,
and also in an engraving by Marot Another painting at Hampton Court depicts the arrival at Torbay, and two Dutch engravings the manner in which William landed and how he was received. There is a caricature of Father Petre in despair, urged by devils to hang himself, and two engravings by Schoonebeek display James burning the writs to summon parliament, and afterwards fleeing from Whitehall in a little boat. An allegorical caricature represents the flight of popery out of England, and a rude picture 'Engraved for the Devils Broker' has Lord Chancellor Jeffreys taken through the furious mob after he had been captured. In another Dutch engraving James appears in the midst of those who so rudely arrested him when attempting to flee from his kingdom. The same artist has represented the second flight of James from Rochester, and a finer engraving from the Cabinet des Estampes shows the unhappy monarch welcomed by Louis XIV at St. Germain. The succeeding reign is illustrated in like manner.
A political caricature holds up the 'trimmer' to ridicule, and another satirizes the non-juror. Several Dutch prints represent the expedition of James II to Ireland, with a frightful illustration of the cruelties perpetrated by him there, while several recent photographs display Londonderry and memorials of the famous siege. A broadside of 1679 is taken to portray “The Manner of His Majesties Curing the Disease, Called the King's-Evil.' A print which exhibits the tea-table in the time of Queen Anne shows that the artist detested the gossip of women.
Two remarkable water-color drawings from the Sutherland Collection supplement Macaulay's matchless description of the pass of Killiecrankie, where Mackay was routed by the onset of the Highlanders, and the gloomy horror of Glencoe, memorable for the blood once shed there. An engraving explains the ordering of ships in the great battle of La Hogue which made secure the Revolution of 1688; a Dutch caricature exhibits the triumph of the allies; and a satirical print shows announcement of the tidings in Versailles. There is an old plan of the battle of Steenkerke and a modern map to illustrate the battle of Landen. An engraving in the British Museum depicts «The True Effigies of James Whitney the Notorious Highwayman': he has the air and
bearing of a hero, as highwaymen too often had in the minds of the common people then. A fan in the same place holds Bartholomew Fair, which once Ben Jonson wrote about. A Dutch engraving has Queen Mary lying in state, and another the long procession of her funeral. A French print shows the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697; another one pictures the fall of William from his horse ; and there is finally the scene of his death. Very interesting is the engraving by Sutton Nicholls of the new Saint Paul's Cathedral in 1695, incomplete and without the glorious dome which now towers aloft over London.
In all the admirable writing of the ‘History,' perhaps the third chapter, on the state of England in 1685, is most justly renowned; and in no other place has illustration been used to better advantage than in connection with this eloquent description of customs and manners and conditions of English life in the seventeenth century. A page from Ogilby's Itinerarium Angliæ, 1675, shows the course of one of the old roads, while Loggan's book upon Cambridge affords an example of the open field system of agriculture which still prevailed in many places. Tempest's Cries of London, 1711, gives the appearance of some of the characters seen on the streets of the metropolis, the smallcoal seller, the courtezan, and elsewhere in the book the Quaker, the female Quaker, the non-conformist minister, the ballad singer, and the gazette seller, who in this case is a woman. A broadside in possession of the editor shows the grave and pious resident parson and the gay and careless non-resident pluralist; while another gives the character of a good clergyman, 'A Worthy Observation, but Scarce Example, in This Degenerate Age.' Pictures of travelling in a coach and of transporting with pack-horses and in carts are taken from an old book. Place is given to Hogarth's later and well-known, but always terrible and interesting picture of the idle apprentice executed at Tyburn. Hogarth's also is the sordid and pathetic picture of women beating hemp in Bridewell. From Moses Pitts's Cry of the Oppressed, 1692, is taken the picture of a debtors' prison.
Professor Firth is well known and justly so as an authority on the ballads of England, and he has in the past published studies based upon them. He observes how interested Macaulay him
self was in studying them, particularly in connection with the life and thought of the common people: 'A great part of their history is to be learnt only from ballads.' It is not surprising, then, to see that good use has been made of these materials, in particular those adorned with rude pictures. Often the illustrations are such as young children might draw. Such is Lord Russels Farewel, VVho was Beheaded for High-Treason,' to the tune of “Tender Hearts of London City,' from the Pepysian Collection. From the same source comes “The Penitent Highway-man' to the tune of 'Russel's Farewel.' From the Roxburghe Ballads is taken one illustrated with gruesome and hideous pictures, The Mournful Subjects,' a lament for the death of Charles II. Two of the Roxburghe Ballads describe the rout of Monmouth and his last words before he was beheaded on Tower Hill. James's first declaration of indulgence in 1687 called forth a rude ‘Manifestation of Joy'; while his progress in the same year is chronicled in a ballad which describes the happiness of his subjects. A little later appears one to announce England's delight in the birth of the young Prince of Wales. The hatred which people bore to James's Jesuit councillor is revealed in The Last Will and Testament of Father Petres.' The accession of William and Mary is commemorated in ‘The Subjects Satisfaction,' and also by another relating the downfall of popery. The Irish war called forth ‘Undaunted London-Derry,' and a song of triumph on its relief. The last days of Jeffreys were pursued with a ballad ornamented with the figure of death and composed of rude verses filled with hatred, To the Tune of, Lilli borlero.' The battle of the Boyne is celebrated in The Protestant Triumph: or, the signal Victory of K. William over the French and Irish'; and the final triumph in another bedecked with a vivid picture of the assault on Limerick. A simple singer lamented Queen Mary's death in verses which still preserve something of rough and true pathos :
The learned Physicians was sent for with speed,
Her soul is convey'd to the Regions of Joy,
Leaving gracious King William to Govern alone.
Finally, the editor makes some use of various rare sources, such as medals, broadsides, and pages from old manuscripts. From the Bodleian Library is taken a broadside proclamation concerning the payment of chimney money in 1674, and from the same place comes an advertisement of the flying coach from Oxford to London in 1669. The importance of the English woolen industry is manifest in an illustrated broadside in the possession of the editor. 'A True Relation' of the manner of the death of Charles II is reproduced from a broadside in the British Museum. Number 2045 of The London Gazette announces the capture of Argyle, and the warrant for his execution appears in the facsimile of a manuscript belonging to the Corporation of Edinburgh. Monmouth's frantic appeal for the intercession of Catherine of Braganza is taken from the Lansdowne MSS.; and a letter from Jeffreys to the Earl of Sunderland comes from the Public Record Office. From a broadside is given the petition of the Seven Bishops and the answer of James thereto; while the Tanner MSS. provide the petition in Sancroft's own hand. From one of the Egerton MSS. is reproduced the facsimile of the instructions given to Admiral Herbert about what he should do in case James were captured on the seas. Another broadside relates the Sad and Lamentable Account of the Strange and Unhappy Misfortune of Mr. John Temple, the Person who Leaped out of the Boat under London Bridg, and was Drowned.' From one of the Additional MSS. in the British Museum is taken a brief letter of Mary to the Countess of Scarborough about the battle of Steenkerke, well expressed but poorly spelled, as was her wont. One of Professor Firth's broadsides reproduces a parody on the declaration of James to the people of England in 1693, and he also contributes a broadside containing a poem congratulating Peter the Great on his arrival in England. The last illustration in the last volume is a broad