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A harmonizing accompaniment of arm to arm is essential. When only one arm is used in the gesture, the other is

brought into action less prominently, and at a lower elevation. When the gesticulating arm comes in front of and across the body, the retired arm falls a little

behind. When the gesticulating arm is backward, the subordinate

arm advances. When the gesture is under the horizontal elevation, the

other arm may fall laxly. Every action of the arm should be terminated by an

accentual motion of the hand from the wrist. In calm and unimpassioned speaking, the accentual beat

of the gesture will coincide with the vocal accent. In strong emotion, the gesture will precede the words. The motions of the hand must be made entirely from the

wrist. The line described by the hand in any motion must be a

curve, except in violent passion when the rigidity of the joints renders the line of action straight and angu

lar. The weight of the body should be sustained generally by

one foot, and the body should be shifted at every change of style and expression. Every motion must be preceded by a preparatory movement in the opposite direction, more or less sweeping, according to the nature of

the emotion. The motions of the feet must always be in diagonal lines. In kneeling, bring that knee to the floor first which is

next to the spectator. In rising, bring up the knee farthest away.


Index arch of the wrist, the rigidity of the thumb,

forefinger, and the hollow of the back of the hand.

Intertwined in Entreaty.
Clenched in Anger.
Supine in Rancor, etc.
Prone in Concealment.
Tips of fingers turned inward in Invitation.
Outward in Rejection and Dismissal.
Crossed on the chest in Meekness.
Indexical in Command and Reproach.
Noting in Warning.
Advanced on palm on an upward incline from the wrist

above medium height-Remonstrance.
At medium height-Pity.
Below medium height-Mourning.
Descend prone slowly in Blessing.
Descend prone with vehemence in Malediction.
Hand laid on the breast appeals to Conscience, or indicates

Beating the breast expresses Remorse.
Laid on the lower part of chest indicates Pride.
Applied to the forehead indicates Doubt.
Moved across the forehead—Confusion or Mental Distress.
Supporting the side of the head—Stupor.
Supporting the cheek—Languor.
Supporting the chin— Meditation.
Laid on the lips enjoins Silence.
Back of one hand laid in palm of the other—Entire

Right hand vertical in Vindication.
Applied in Appeal.
Wave in Admiration.
Clasped in Joy.
Folded in Resignation.
Shake in Terror.
Start in Astonishment.
Wave supine downward in Salutation.
Hand on crown of the head-Delirium.

Hund pressed on the upper part of chest—Palpitation of

the heart-Difficulty in breathing. Objects above the horizontal elevation in directive gestures

are always supine; objects below, prone.




Listening Reverse.

Faith. Reverse.

Anger. Reverse.


Expectation. Reverse.
Reproach. Reverse. Delight.

Hope. Reverse.

Warning. Reverse. Liberty. Reverse.
Fear. Reverse.






Defiance. Reverse.

Affection. Reverse.

Time and Place.

Feather Movement. Remonstrance.

Expressive Joy.

Good Night.


None of our powers are more susceptible of cultivation

than those of expression. I have seen an eye curse, and an eyebrow call a man a scoundrel.


In the higher emotions, love, hope, patriotism, and sublim

ity, the lines of the face curve upward, the expression is

uplifted. In calm and placid emotions, the lines are horizontal. The lower emotions, such as hate, fear, revenge, the lines

are downward. Every expression of the face, every position of the body,

every gesture, is but the outward expression of the mind

and heart, be it one of beauty or ugliness. Attitude is but arrested expression; all the higher emo

tions find expression in spiral movements. Gesture is expression. The mind can be interested by

speech ; it must be persuaded by gesture. If the face bears no signs, we do not persuade. Facial expression is the language of the soul. There is something marvellous in this language, because it

has relations with another sphere—the world of grace. The basis of this art is to make the audience divine what

we would have them feel. The eye is the window of the soul ;—let it express the emo

tions contained in the given selection. It takes many words to say what a single word reveals. Cicero says, “ Nature hath bestowed upon man a bodily

figure completely adapted to his mind. The face of every other animal he hath turned downward to the ground, from whence its nourishment is drawn; to man alone is given a form erect, a face turned upward to his kindred heaven, to those divine abodes which are his native seat. She has, besides, so exquisitely modelled the human feat

ures that they are capable of expressing the most secret emotions of the soul. The penetrating glances of the eye indicate the corresponding internal affections, and the moral character is shown in the face.

BOW. In making a bow, bring the advanced foot behind the other,

the knee of which bend with the weight of the body.


There are three kinds of breathing,-Abdominal, Costal,

and Dorsal.

Abdominal Ereathing.

Place both hands upon the abdomen and breathe deeply,

forcing the muscles outward. Let them sink as much as possible during exhalation. Aspirate the letter S, breathing out as long as possible,

letting the abdominal muscles contract. Slowly breathe back until the abdominal muscles extend

outward to the utmost. Imagine yourself blowing a feather in the air. Expel the breath, blowing quickly. Contract the abdominal muscles. Draw the breath back,

filling the abdomen, extending the muscles. Give the vowels-A, E, I, O, U. Place the hand upon

the abdomen. Take a full breath, throwing the muscles outward, and say A in a full tone, until the muscles con

tract to the utmost. This should be practised only a few minutes at a time.

Costal Breathing.

Distend the sides while inhaling, and relax gradually

with slow and regular exhalation.

Dorsal Breathing.

Inhale as if endeavoring to thrust out the muscles of the

back by the force of the air.

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