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PROF. V. H. LANE 8-9-33

PREFACE.

THE plan and outlines of the following work were sketched, and a considerable portion of it composed, about eighteen years ago. It was advertised, as preparing for the press, in 1823, when the author published the first edition of " The Christian Philosopher;" but various other engagements prevented its appearance at that period. The Introduction and the first two sections were published in a respectable quarterly journal in the year 1816; but they are now considerably modified and enlarged. This circumstance will account for the date of some of the illustrative facts to which reference is made in the first part of the volume, and in several portions of the Appendix.

Had the present work been published at any of the periods now referred to, the subject it discusses, and some of the illustrations, would have presented a more novel aspect than they can lay claim to at the present time, when the diffusion of knowledge has become an object of general attention. The author, however, is not aware that any work embracing so full an illustration of the same topics has yet made its appearance; and is, therefore, disposed to indulge the hope, that, in conjunction with the present movements of society, it may, in some degree, tend to stimulate those exertions which are now making for the melioration and mental improvement of mankind. Independently of the general bearing of the facts and illustrations on the several topics they are intended to elucidate, the author trusts that not a few fragments of useful knowledge will be found incorporated in the following pages, calculated to entertain and instruct the general reader.

In the numerous illustrations brought forward in this volume, it was found impossible altogether to avoid a recurrence to certain facts which the author had partially adverted to in some of his former publications, without interrupting the train of thought, and rendering his illustrations partial and incomplete. But, where the same facts are introduced, they are generally brought forward to elucidate a different topic. Any statements or descriptions of this kind, however, which may have the appearance of repetition, could all be comprised within the compass of three or four pages.

The general subject of the present work will be prosecuted in another volume, to be entitled "The Mental Illumination of Mankind, or an inquiry into the means by which a general diffusion of knowledge may be promoted." This

work will embrace-along with a great variety of other topics - an examination of the present system of education, showing its futility and inefficiency, and illustrating the principles and details of an efficient intellectual system, capable of universal application; together with a variety of suggestions in relation to the physical, moral, and intellectual improvement of society.

To his numerous correspondents who have been inquiring after the work, "The Scenery of the Heavens Displayed, with the view of illustrating the doctrine of a Plurality of Worlds," which was announced at page 88 of the "Philosophy of a Future State," the author begs respectfully to state, that, if health permit, he intends to proceed, without delay, to the completion of that work, as soon as the volume announced above is ready for the press. It will form a volume of considerable size, and will be illustrated with a great number of engravings, many of which will be original.

Broughty Ferry, near Dundee, 18th April, 1833.

CONTENTS.

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Objects and circumstances which ignorance has arrayed with imaginary terrors-eclipses,
comets, aurora borealis, &c. Absurdity of astrology. Belief attached to its doctrines.
Various prevalent superstitious opinions-omens-witches-spectres, &c. Proof of such
notions still prevailing. Superstitions indulged by men of rank and learning. Baneful
tendency of superstition-leads to deeds of cruelty and injustice. How knowledge would
undermine superstition and its usual accompaniments-illustrated at large. Animadversion
on Dr. S. Johnson, &c.

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Science founded on facts. Every person is endowed with faculties for observing facts.
Anecdote of Sir I. Newton. Extraordinary powers of intellect not necessary for making
discoveries in science. Ample field of investigation still remains. Discoveries would

ON THE PLEASURES CONNECTED WITH THE PURSUITS OF SCIENCE.

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ON THE PRACTICAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, AND ITS TENDENCY
TO PROMOTE THE COMFORTS OF GENERAL SOCIETY.

I. A knowledge of science would render mechanics, &c. more skilful in their respective
employments-illustrated from the arts of dying, calico printing, bleaching, brewing,
tanning, agriculture, &c. Chymistry essentially requisite to surgeons and apothecaries.
Utility of practical Geometry, illustrated by a diagram. Utility of Mechanics. Of Hydro-
statics and Hydraulics, illustrated with various figures. Hydrostatical paradox, mode of
conveying water, hydrostatical press, perpendicular pressure of water, and the accidents
it may occasion. Application of these facts to engineering and hydraulic operations.
Disaster occasioned by want of attention to hydrostatic principles. Practical utility of
Pneumatics-anecdote illustrative of. Mode of curing smoky chimneys, illustrated by
figures. Utility of an acquaintauce with Optics. Explanation of the nature of a
Mode of constructing a compound
telescope, and the mode of its construction.
microscope, with illustrative figures. Burning lenses, Sir D. Brewster's Polyzonal Lens,
reflecting concave mirrors for light-houses, &c., with illustrative figures. Utility of
Mode of directing lightning as a mechanical power.

Electricity and Galvanism.

Practical applications of Magnetism, and late discoveries in-Magnetized masks, &c.
Practical utility of Geology. Utility of Natural History. Application of steam-steam
navigation-steam carriages. Carburetted hydrogen gas. Utility of science to day-
labourers, house-keepers, kitchen-maids, &c. Instance illustrative of the advantages
of chymical knowledge

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