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CHAPTER XIX.

President Polk, p. 1354_Relations between the United States and Mexico, 1354-Annexation of Texas, 1355-Preparations for War, 1355-Bargain with Santa Anna and its Results, 1355– Army of Occupation in Texas, 1356-General Taylor and Troops on the Rio Grande, 1357– Generals Ampudia and Taylor, 1357—Fort Brown Constructed, 1357-First Bloodshed, 1357 --A Mexican Force in Texas, 1357-Attack on Fort Brown, 1358---Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, 1358-General Taylor Enters Mexico, 1360-Declarations of War by the Two Governments, 1360—Plan of a Campaign, 1360-Siege and Capture of Monterey, 1361– Santa Anna in Mexico, 1361--General Wool in Mexico, 1361-Conquests by the Navy, 1362General Scott calls for Taylor's Troops, 1362-Battle of Buena Vista, 1363—Movements of General Taylor, 1365-Events in Northern Mexico, 1365-Conquest of New Mexico and California, 1366.

CHAPTER XX.

Capture of Vera Cruz, p. 1368—March Toward the Capital of Mexico, 1369-Battle of Cerro Gordo, 1369----Flight of Santa Anna, 1369-Capture of Jalapa, Perote, and Pueblo, 1370—A Wonderful Campaign, 1370—March over the Cordilleras, 1371-Peace Propositions Rejected, 1373--Defences of the Mexican Capital, 1373—Battles near that City, 1373-Conquest of the Empire, 1374–Treaty of Peace, 1375–Gold Found in California, 1376—Results of the War with Mexico, 1376-Election and Inauguration of General Taylor as President of the Republic, 1376 - California Seeks Admission into the Union, 1378—Violent Debates on the Subject of Slavery, 1378-Its Temporary Settlement by a Compromise, 1378-Death of President Taylor, 1379– Accession of President Fillmore, 1379–Compromise Bills Passed, 1379–Invasion of Cuba, 1380.

CHAPTER XXI.

The Mormons; their Origin and Progress, p. 1381-The Fugitive Slave Law, 1383--Invasion of Cuba, 1383—Territory Bought of the Indians, 1384—Enlargement of the Capitol, 1384– Kossuth and his Cause, 1384-Disputes about Fisheries, 1385-Relations with Japan, 1385Tripartite Treaty, 1385–The Ostend Conference, 1386—President Pierce and his Cabinet, 1386 ---Exploring Expeditions, 1387–Union Pacific Railroad, 1387—The Sandwich Islands, 1387— Our Foreign Relations, 1388-Kansas and Nebraska Territories, 1388-Controversy about Slavery, 1388–Difficulties with Spain, 1388—Raids in Central America, 1389-War with Indians, 1390–Violation of Neutrality Laws, 1390-Conflict between Freedom and Slavery, 1390— Political Struggles in Kansas, 1390-A State Constitution Adopted, 1391–Violence in Kansas, 1391_Political Parties, 1391.

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A New Era, p. 1395-Skirmishes before the Civil War, 1396—The Democratic Party, 1396 The Dred Scott Decision, 1397-Action of the Supreme Court of the United States, 1397-Early Efforts to Restrict Slavery, 1398—Slaves in England, 1398--The Status of Slavery here, 1399– President Buchanan's Course Foreshadowed, 1400—Civil War in Kansas and Civil Government there, 1400-Lecompton Constitution Adopted and Rejected, 1401–Admission of Kansas as a State, 1401-A Judicial Decision Practically Reversed, 1402-Reopening of the African SlaveTrade and Action concerning it, 1402—Working of the Fugitive Slaye Law, 1405-Action of State Legislatures, 1405--Troubles with the Mormons, 1406.

CHAPTER II.

Public Quiet Broken by John Brown's Raid, p. 1407-Incidents of that Raid and its Effects, 1408—The Republican Party, 1409-A Pretext for Revolution, 1410_Convention of Democrats at Charleston, 1411-Disruption of the Democratic Party, 1413-Incidents of the Plan, 1413 Nominations for President, 1414–Principles of the Parties, 1415-Lincoln Elected, 1417Action of the Southern Politicians, 1417-Yancey's Mission, 1417-Fatal Power of the Politicians, 1417.

CHAPTER III.

The Pretext for Disunion, p. 1419–True Reasons, 1419--State-Rights Associations, 1421– Desires for a Royal Government and Aristocratic Privileges, 1421-Early Preparations for Disunion, 1422-Secret Conferences, 1422-Sentiments of Virginians, 1422_Congratulatory Despatches on Lincoln's Election, 1423-Excitement in Charleston, 1424-Public Offices Abdicated, 1424-A State Convention Authorized, 1424-Secret Doings of Secessionists, 1425Movements in South Carolina, 1425--State Supremacy and its Effects, 1426–Events in Georgia, 1426—Toombs and Stephens, 1427–Movements toward Secession in Various States, 1427_ Southern Methodists, 1427-Initial Steps for Disunion in South Carolina, 1428--Dishonorable Propositions, 1428_Vigilance Committees, 1429-Secession Assured, 1429.

CHAPTER IV.

Secession Convention in South Carolina, p. 1430—Proceedings of the Convention, 1430m Ordinance of Secession Adopted, 1431_Public Excitement, 1431-Signing the Ordinance, 1432 -Anxiety of the Loyal People, 1432-Secretary Cobb's Schemes, 1433—President's Message, its Tone and Reception, 1434-The Attorney-General's Opinion, 1434--Movements of the People and the Clergy, 1436_Proceedings in South Carolina, 1437-Declaration of Independence, 1437–Nationality of South Carolina Proclaimed, 1437—Events in Charleston Harbor, 1438--Secretary Floyd's Treachery, 1439–Transfer of Troops to Fort Sumter, 1439-The Secessionists Foiled, 1441–Floyd Succeeded by Holt, 1441.

CHAPTER V.

Heroism of Major Anderson, p. 1442--His Wife and Peter Hart, 1442-Robbery in the Interior Department, 1443-Flight of Secretary Floyd, 1443—Cabinet Changes, 1443–South Carolina Commissioners in Washington, 1444-Attempt to Reinforce and Supply Fort Sumter, 1444-Inauguration of Civil War at Charleston, 1444-Language of the Politicians, 1445—The People Bewildered, 1446—Fate of Leaders, 1446——" Secession” in other States, 1447-Seizure of Public Property, 1448-Northern Sympathizers, 1447-Plan of the Secessionists, 1448—Dix's Order, 1448-Action in the Border States, 1449--Concessions, 1449-Peace Convention, 1449—Adams's Proposition, 1449-Convention at Montgomery, 1450--Establishment of a Southern Confederate Government, 1452.

CHAPTER VI.

Lunacy, p. 1454-Yielding to Necessity, 1454-Wild Dreams of the Future, 1455-Boasting, 1455--The Confederates Prepare for War, 1455–Permanent Constitution Adopted, 5455– Adjournment of the Montgomery Convention, 1455--Principles of the New Government Expounded, 1456_Lincoln and Davis, 1456_Lincoln's Journey to the Capital, 1457–Narrative of his Escape, 1458-His Inauguration and Inaugural Address, 1460--Duties of the Adminis. tration, 1461-Condition of the Army and Navy, 1462-Benton's Prophecy, 1462_Confederate Commissioners at the Capital, 1463-The Virginians, 1464--Attempt to Relieve Fort Sumter and the Result, 1464.

CHAPTER VII.

Virginians in Charleston, p. 1466-A Cry for Blood, 1466_Events in Charleston, 1467.. Siege of Fort Sumter, 1467-Incidents of the Struggle, 1468-Evacuation of the Fort, 1469--Joyful Feelings in Charleston, 1470--Gratitude of the Loyal People Displayed, 1470-Honors to Major Anderson, 1470-Attempts to Capture Fort Pickens, 1470-Honors to Lieutenant Slemmer, 1472-President's Call for Troops, 1473—Responses to the Call, 1473-Uprising of the Loyal People, 1474-Boastings of the Northern Press, 1475-A Fatal Mistake, 1476— Interpretations of Scripture, 1476—Proclamations and Counter-Proclamations, 1476—Privateering Recommended to the Confederates, 1477--Action of the Confederate Congress, 1477Privateers Commissioned, 1477.

CHAPTER VIII.

The Virginia Convention, p. 1478-Union Sentiments Suppressed by Violence, 1479_Ordinance of Secession Passed, 1479-Bad Faith, 1479–Virginia Annexed to the Confederacy, 1479 -The People Disfranchised, 1480--The National Capital to be Seized, 1480-Davis's Professions, 1480-Poetic Comments on them, 1481--Events at Harper's Ferry and Gosport NavyYard, 1481–Response to the Call for Troops, 1482-Massachusetts Sends Troops to Washington, 1483-Attack upon them in Baltimore, 1483-Critical Situation of the Capital, 1484-The

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President and Maryland Secessionists, 1485--Prompt and Efficient Action of General Wool, 1485-Union Defence Committee, 1486--General Butler's Operations in Maryland, 1486--He takes Possession of Baltimore, 1487–Events at the Capital, 1488—Preparations for the Struggle, 1488.

CHAPTER IX.

Defection of Colonel Lee, p. 1489---Temptation and Fall, 1490_First Invasion of Virginia, 1490-Death of Colonel Ellsworth, 1491-Blockade of the Potomac, 1492–Engagement at Sewall's Point, 1492-Loyalty in Western Virginia, 1492-Action of the Secessionists, 1492Conventions, 1492-Creation and Admission of a New State, 1493---Troops from Beyond the Ohio, 1495—The First Battle on Land, 1495–Attitude of the Border States, 1495_Kentucky Unionism, 1495-Events in Missouri, 1497-General Lyon, 1497—The Governor of Missouri Raises the Standard of Revolt, 1498—Movements in Tennessee, 1498-Pillow and Polk, 1498Change in the Confederate Seat of Government, 1498_Jefferson Davis in Virginia, 1498-His Reception in Richmond, 1499.

CHAPTER X.

Beauregard's Proclamation, p. 1500-Insurgents at Harper's Ferry, 1501-Exploits of an Indiana Regiment, 1501-Events on the Virginia Peninsula, 1501-Battle at Big Bethel, 1502National Troops on the Upper Potomac, 1503-The Capital in Danger, 1503-A Gunpowder Plot, 1504-Action of England and France, 1504-Punch's Epigram, 1505—Conduct of Great Britain and the Western European Powers, 1505-Russia, 1507—Meeting of Congress, 1507— Department Reports, 1508--Appropriations, 1508_Increase of the Navy, 1508-Enthusiasm of the People, 1509--Women's Work, 1509–Miss Dix, 1509–United States Sanitary and Christian Commissions, 1511-Benevolent Work in Philadelphia, 1511.

CHAPTER XI.

Confederates in Virginia, p. 1513-National Troops in Western Virginia, 1513-McClellan's Campaign, 1514-Secessionists Repressed in Baltimore, 1515--Confederate Privateers, 1515– Troops near Washington, 1516—Manassas Junction, 1516– Patterson Crosses the Potomac, 1517--Movements of National Troops, 1517—Battle at Blackburn's Ford, 1517_Battle of Bull's Run and its Effects, 1518—War in the West, 1522-General Lyon's Campaign, 1522–Military Operations in Missouri, 1522-Death of Lyon, 1524-Union Movement, 1524-Movements of a Disloyal Governor, 1524.

CHAPTER XII.

Fremont in Missouri, p. 1525-Siege and Fall of Lexington, 1526–Kentucky Neutrality Violated by the Confederates, 1526-Events in Eastern Kentucky, 1527-Buckner's Raid, 1527_Fremont Superseded, 1528-Battle at Belmont, 1529-Military Movements in Northwestern Virginia, 1529-Lee, Floyd, and Wise, 1530-Civil War Ended in West Virginia, 1531-Capture of Hatteras Forts, 1531–Events near Fort Pickens and Southwest Pass, 1533--Operations on the Coast of South Carolina, 1533---McClellan in Command, 1534—“On to Richmond !” 1535-Boldness of the Confederates, 1535--They are Pushed Back, 1536--Battle at Ball's Bluff, 1537.

CHAPTER XIII.

Inaction of the Army of the Potomac, p. 1538-Capture of Mason and Slidell, 1539—Conduct of the British Government and Press, 1540-President Lincoln's Wisdom, 1540-Release of the Captives, 1541-Expedition to the Coast of North Carolina, 1542--Capture of Roanoke Island, 1543—-Proclamation to the People of Eastern North Carolina, 1543--Department Commanders West of the Mississippi, 1544-Missouri Purged of Armed Insurgents, 1544-The Campaign in Missouri, 1544-Insurgents Chased into Arkansas, 1545-Battle of Pea Ridge, 1546_Military Operations in New Mexico, 1546--Battle at Valverde, 1548—Insurgents Expelled from New Mexico, 1548-Civil and Military Transactions in Kentucky, 1548— Battle of Mill Spring, 1550 -The Confederate Line Across Kentucky Broken and Shortened, 1550-Beauregard in the West, 1551.

CHAPTER XIV.

A Gun-boat Fleet, p. 1552-Expedition against Forts Henry and Donelson, 1552-Capture of Forts Henry and Hieman, 1553-Naval Expedition up the Tennessee, 1553-Its Discoveries, 1554-Army Reorganized, 1554-Siege of Fort Donelson, 1554-Change in Temperature, 1554Engagements on Land and Water, 1555---A Desperate Measure Attempted, 1555-Council of War, 1556--Cowardice, 1556-Surrender of Fort Donelson, 1557–Army Postal Service, 1557– Panic at Nashville, 1559-Surrender of the City, 1559—Provisional Government for Tennessee, 1559-Events on the Mississippi River, 1560-Siege and Capture of Island Number Ten, 1560 Movement toward Corinth, 1562—National Army at Pittsburg Landing, 1562—Buell's Army on the March, 1563.

CHAPTER XV.

The Nationals and Confederates at Shiloh, p. 1564-Battle of Shiloh: Its Events and Results, 1565--The Confederate Retreat to Corinth, 1566-Siege and Capture of Corinth, 1566-General Mitchel's Raid into Alabama, 1567—Recovered Territory, 1567-Raid upon a Railway, 1568– Capture of Memphis, 1569—Capture of New Berne and Fort Macon, 1569—Events on the Coast of North Carolina, 1569–Siege and Capture of Fort Pulaski, 1570_Conquests on the Southern Coasts, 1571—Expedition against New Orleans, 1572-Capture of Forts on the Mississippi, 1573 --Destruction of the Confederate Flotilla, 1574--Seizure of New Orleans, 1575-Hatred of General Butler, 1576.

CHAPTER XVI.

Army of the Potomac, p. 1577---Armies Ordered to Move, 1578-McClellan's Plan of Operations, 1578_Evacuation of Manassas, 1579–“ Promenade" of the Union Army, 1579—McClellan Relieved, 1579—The “Monitor” and “Merrimac,” 1580—Events in the Shenandoah Valley, 1581-Battle at Kernstown, 1581-Army of the Potomac on the Peninsula, 1581-Siege of Yorktown, 1581--Magruder's Strategy, 1582-Battle at Williamsburg, 1582—Tardy Movements, 1582 -McClellan and the President, 1583—Capture of Norfolk, 1584-Military Events in the Valley, 1584—Battles at Winchester, Cross Keys and Port Republic, 1585--The “ White House," 1586 On the Chickahominy, 1586—Confederate Government Rebuked, 1586—Fatal Hesitation, 1586 -- Battle at Fair Oaks, 1587_Stuart's Raid, 1589.

CHAPTER XVII.

Battles of Mechanicsville and Gaines's Mill, p. 1591-Transfer of the Army to the James River, 1591-Battles at Savage's Station, White-Oak Swamp and Glendale, 1591–Battle at Malvern Hill, 1592—The Army at Harrison's Landing, 1593_-" Army of Virginia," 1593—Battle of Cedar Mountain, 1593—Washington in Danger, 1594-McClellan and the Government, 1595--

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