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sion of Muhammad 'Ali, in 1821, from the small temple of Osiris, generally called the "Temple on the Roof."
The Iseium is situated to the south of the temple of Hathor, and consists of three chambers and a corridor; near by is a pylon which was dedicated to Isis in the 31st year of Caesar Augustus.
The Mammisi, ^ Pa-mestu, or "house of giving
birth," also built by Augustus, is the name given to the celestial dwelling where the goddess was supposed to have brought forth the third person of the triad which was adored in the temple close by.
The Typhonium stands to the north of the Temple of Hathor, and was so named because the god Bes Jj^,
figures of whom occur on its walls, was confused with Typhon; it measures about 120 feet x 60 feet, and is surrounded by a peristyle of twenty-two columns.
The Temple of Denderah was nearly buried among the rubbish which centuries had accumulated round about it, and a whole village of wretched mud-huts actually stood upon the roof! The excavation of this fine monument was undertaken and completed by M. Mariette, who published many of the texts and scenes inscribed upon its walls in his work mentioned above.
The crocodile was worshipped at Kom Ombo, and Juvenal gives an account of a fight which took place between the people of this place and those of Denderah, in which one of the former stumbled, while running along, and was caught by his foes, cut up, and eaten.
A few miles beyond Denderah, on the east bank of the river, lies the town of Koft, the A J ® Qebt of the hieroglyphics, and KecjT of the Copts; it was the principal city in the Coptites nome, and was the Thebai's Secunda of the Itineraries. From Koft the road which crossed the desert to Berenice on the Red Sea started, and the merchandise which passed through the town from the east, and the stone from the famous porphyry quarries in the Arabian desert must have made it wealthy and important. It held the position of a port on the Nile for merchandise from a very early period; and there is no doubt that every Egyptian king who sent expeditions to Punt, and the countries round about, found Kofi most usefully situated for this purpose. A temple dedicated to the ithyphallic god Amsu, Isis and Osiris, stood here. It was nearly destroyed by Diocletian, A.d. 292. A copy of a medical papyrus in the British Museum, states that the work was originally dis covered at Coptos during the time of Cheops, a king of the IVth> dynastyit is certain then that the Egyptians considered this city to be of very old foundation.
Nakadah, 428 miles from Cairo, on the west bank of the river, nearly opposite the island of Matarah, was the home of a large number of Copts in early Christian times, and several monasteries were situated there. The four which now remain are dedicated to the Cross, St. Michael, St. Victor, and St. George respectively, and tradition says that they were founded by the Empress Helena; the most important of them is that of St. Michael. The church in this monastery "is one of the most remarkable Christian structures in Egypt, possessing as it does some unique peculiarities. There are four churches, of which three stand side by side in such a manner that they have a single continuous western wall. Two of the four have an apsidal haikal with rectagular side chapels, while the other two are entirely rectangular; but the two apses differ from all other apses in Egyptian churches by projecting. . . beyond the eastern wall and by showing an outward curvature. They form a solitary exception to the rule that the Coptic apse is merely internal, and so far belong rather to Syrian architecture than to Coptic. The principal church shows two other features which do not occur elsewhere in the Christian buildings of Egypt, namely, an external atrium surrounded
with a cloister, and a central tower with a clerestory
Possibly the same remark may apply to the structure of the iconostasis, which has two side-doors and no central entrance, though this arrangement is not quite unparalleled in the churches of Upper Egypt, and may be a later alteration. It will be noticed that the church has a triple western entrance from the cloisters." (Butler, Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt, Vol. I., p. 361.)
LUXOR (EL-KUSUR) AND THEBES.
Luxor, 450 miles from Cairo, on the east bank of the river, is a small town with a few thousand inhabitants, and owes its importance to the Tact that it is situated close to the ruins of the temples of the ancient city of Thebes. The name Luxor is a corruption of the Arabic name of the place, El-Kusur, which means "the palaces." Ancient Thebes stood on both sides of the Nile, and was generally
called in hieroglyphics Uast; that part of the city
which was situated on the -east bank of the river, and included the temples of Karnak and Luxor, appears to have
been called (jD (2 jj j ^ Aptet, whence the Coptic T" lie
and the name Thebes have been derived. The cuneiform inscriptions and Hebrew Scriptures call itNo(Ezek. xxx. 14) and No-Amon* (Nahum iii. 8), and the Greek and Roman writers Diospolis Magna. When or by whom Thebes was founded it is impossible to say. Diodorus says that it is the most ancient city of Egypt; some say that, like Memphis, it was founded by Menes, and others, that it was a colony from Memphis. It is certain, however, that it did not become a city of the first importance until after the decay of Memphis, and as the progress of Egyptian civilization was from north to south, this is only what was to be expected. During the early dynasties no mention is made of Thebes, but we know that as early as the XIIth dynasty some kings were buried there.
The spot on which ancient Thebes stood is so admirably adapted for the site of a great city, that it
* No-amon in Revised Version.
would have been impossible for the Egyptians to over look it. The mountains on the east and west side of the river sweep away from it, and leave a broad plain on each bank of several square miles in extent. It has been calculated that modern Paris could stand on this space of ground. We have, unfortunately, no Egyptian description of Thebes, or any statement as to its size; it may, however, be assumed from the remains of its buildings which still exist, that the descriptions of the city as given by Strabo and Diodorus are on the whole trustworthy. The fame ot the greatness of Thebes had reached the Greeks of Homer's age, and its "hundred gates" and 20,000 war chariots are referred to in Iliad IX, 381. The city must have reached its highest point of splendour during the rule of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties over Egypt, and as little by little the local god Amen-Ra became the great god of all Egypt, his dwelling-place Thebes also gained in importance and splendour. The city suffered severely at the hands of Cambyses, who left nothing in it unburnt that fire would consume. Herodotus appears never to have visited Thebes, and the account he gives of it is not satisfactory; the account of Diodorus, who saw it about B.C. 57, is as follows: "Afterwards reigned Busiris, and eight of his posterity after him; the last of which (of the same name with the first) built that great city which the Egyptians call Diospolis, the Greeks Thebes; it was in circuit 140 stades (about twelve miles), adorned with stately public buildings, magnificent temples, and rich donations and revenues to admiration; and that he built all the private houses, some four, some five stories high. And to sum up all in a word, made it not only the most beautiful and stateliest city of Egypt, but of all others in the world. The fame therefore of the riches and grandeur of this city was so noised abroad in
every place, that the poet Homer takes notice of it
Although there are some that say it had not a hundred