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the "Book of being in the under-world;" it is quite impossible to describe them here, for a large number of pages would be required for the purpose. It must be sufficient to draw attention to the excellence and beauty of the paintings and sculptures, and to point out that the whole series refers to the life of the king in the under-world. The tomb is entered by means of two flights of steps, at the bottom of which is a passage terminating in a small chamber. Beyond this are two halls having four and two pillars respectively, and to the left are the passages and small chambers which lead to the large six-pillared hall and vaulted chamber in which stood the sarcophagus of Seti I. Here also is an inclined plane which descends into the mountain for a considerable distance; from the level of the ground to the bottom of this incline the depth is about 150 feet; the length of the tomb is nearly 500 feet. The designs on the walls were first sketched in outline in red, and the alterations by the master designer or artist were made in black; it would seem that this tomb was never finished. The mutilations and destruction which have been committed here during the last twenty-five years are truly lamentable. The mummy of Seti I., found at Der el-Bahari, is preserved in the Gizeh Museum.
No. 11. Tomb of Rameses III., B.c. 1200, commonly called "Bruce's Tomb," because it was discovered by this traveller, and the "Tomb of the Harper," on account of the scene in it in which men are represented playing harps. The architect did not leave sufficient space between this and a neighbouring tomb, and hence after excavating passages and chambers to a distance of more than 100 feet, he was obliged to turn to the right to avoid breaking into it. The flight of steps leading into the tomb is not as steep as that in No. 17, the paintings and sculptures are not so fine, and the general plan of ornamentation differs. The scenes on the walls of the first passage resemble those in the first passage of No. 17, but in the other passages and chambers warlike, domestic, and agricultural scenes and objects are depicted. The body of the red granite sarcophagus of Rameses III. is in Paris, the cover is in the FitzwOliam Museum, Cambridge, and the mummy of this king is at Gizeh. The length of the tomb is about 400 feet
No. 2. The Tomb of Rameses IV., about B..c. 1166, though smaller than the others, is of considerable interest; the granite sarcophagus, of colossal proportions, still stands in situ at the bottom. Having seen the beautiful sculptures and paintings in the Tomb of Seti I., the visitor will probably not be disposed to spend much time in that of Rameses IV.
No. 9. The Tomb of Rameses VI., or "Memnon's Tomb," was considered of great interest by the Greeks and Romans who visited it in ancient days; the astronomical designs on some of the ceilings, and the regular sequence of its passages and rooms are interesting. The fragments of the granite sarcophagus of this king lie at the bottom of the tomb.
No. 6. The Tomb of Rameses IX., is remarkable for the variety of sculptures and paintings of a nature entirely different from those found in the other royal tombs; they appear to refer to the idea of resurrection after death and of immortality, which is here symbolized by the principle of generation.
The Tomb of Rameses I., father of Seti I., is the oldest in this valley; it was opened by Belzoni.
The Tomb* of Rechmara is situated in the hill behind the Ramesseum called Shekh 'Abd el-Kurnah; it is one of the most interesting of all the private tombs found at Thebes. The scenes on the walls represent a procession of tribute bearers from Punt carrying apes, ivory, etc.,
* No. 35, according to Wilkinson, and No. 15, according to Champollion.
dedicated to Horus and Sebek. Unlike other Egyptian temples, it has neither dromos nor propylon; the portico was supported by fifteen pillars, thirteen of which are still standing, and the hall contained ten. This temple measured about 185 feet x 114 feet; all its walls and columns were covered with coloured hieroglyphics, and the cornice which ran round the portico and hall was exceedingly fine. To the north-west of this temple is a smaller sandstone temple which was dedicated to Isis (?) Both temples stood in an enclosure which measured about 460 x 400 yards, on each side of which was a thick crude brick wall; on the south and south-east sides there was a door.
Aswan (or Uswan), the southern limit of Egypt proper, 583 miles from Cairo, on the east bank of the river, called in Egyptian f] %, Coptic ccnr<Lrt, was called by the
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Greeks Syene, which stood on the slope of a hill to the
south-west of the present town. Properly speaking Syene
was the island of Elephantine. In the earliest Egyptian
inscriptions it is called fj^^.orfj^^^,
Abu, i.e., "the district of the elephant," and it formed the metropolis of the first nome of Upper Egypt. As we approach the time of the Ptolemies, the name Sunnu, the town on the east bank of the Nile, from whence comes the Arabic name Aswan, takes the place of Abu. The town obtained great notoriety among the ancients from the fact that Eratosthenes and Ptolemy considered it to lie on the tropic of Cancer, and to be the most northerly point where, at the time of the summer solstice, the sun's rays fell vertically; as a matter of fact, however, the town lies o' 37' 23" north of the tropic of Cancer. There was a famous well there, into which the sun was said to shine at the summer solstice, and to illuminate it in every part. In the time of the Romans three cohorts were stationed here,* and the town was of considerable importance. In the twelfth century of our era it was the seat of a bishop. Of its size in ancient days
* It is interesting to observe that the Romans, like the British, held Egypt by garrisoning three places, viz. Aswan, Babylon (Cairo), and Alexandria. The garrison at AswSn defended Egypt from foes on the south, and commanded the entrance of the Nile; the garrison at Babylon guarded the end of the Nile valley and the entrance to the Delta; and the garrison at Alexandria protected the country from invasion by sea.