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474. Zeno. He issued the Henoticon,. z.r\ edict which, while affirming the. Incarnation, made no attempt to decide the difficult question whether Christ possessed a single oca.double nature..

481. Anastasius.

527. Justinian. The Monophysites separated from the Melchites and chose their owa patriarch; they

were afterwards called Copts, luJiH.*

610. Heraclius. The Persians under Chosroes hold Egypt for ten years; they are expelled by Heraclius A.d. 629.


638. 'Amr ibn el-'Asi conquers Egypt. 644. 'Othman.

750. Merwan II., the last of the 'Omayyade dynasty, was

put to death in Egypt. 750-870. The'Abbasides rule over Egypt. 786'. Harun er-Rashid.

813. Mamun visited Egypt, and opened the Great Pyramid. 870. Ahmed ibn-Tulun governs Egypt. 884. Khamaruyeh enlarges Fostat.

969-1171. The Fatimites govern Egypt, with Masr el

Kahira f (Cairo) as their residence. 975. Aziz, son of Mu'izz, great grandson of 'Obedallah. 996. Hakim, son of 'Aziz, founder of the Druses. Th1s

remarkable prince wished to be considered as God


* The name given to the native Christians of Egypt by the Arabs, from KTIXT^IOC for Aiyrnrioc.


1020. Zahir, son of Hakim. 1036. Abu Tamim el-Mustansir.

1094. Musta'li, son of el-Mustansir, captured Jerusalem (a.d. 1096), but was defeated by the Crusaders under Godfrey de Bouillon.

1160. 'Adfd Ledinallah, the last of the Fatimites.

1171. Salaheddin (Saladin) defeated the Crusaders at Hittin, and recaptured Jerusalem.

1193. Melik el'-Adtl.

1218. Melik el-Kamil, the builder of Mansurah.

1240. Melik es-Saleh, the usurper, captured Jerusalem, Damascus, and Ascalon. Louis IX., of France, attacked and captured Damietta, but was made prisoner at Mansurah, with all his army.

1250-1380. The Bahrite Mamelukes.

1260. B£bars.

1277. Kalaun.

1291. El-Ashraf KhaHl captured Acre.
1346. Hasan.

1382-1517. Burgite or Circassian Mamelukes.
1382. Barkuk.
1422. Bursbey.
1468. Kait Bey.
1501. El-Ghuri.

1517. Tuman Bey is deposed by Selim I. of Constanti-
nople, and Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik.
1771. 'Ali Bey sultin of Egypt.

1798. Napoleon Bonaparte stormed Alexandria; battle of the Pyramids; and French fleet destroyed off Abukir by the English.

1801. French compelled by the English to evacuate Egypt.

1805. Muhammad 'Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt.

1811. Assassination of the Mamelukes by him.

1831. Declares his independence.


1848. Ibrahim Pasha.

1849. Death of Muhammad 'Ali. 'Abbas Pasha was

strangled at Benha.

1854. Sa'id Pasha. The railway from Alexandria was completed, and the making of the Suez Canal begun in his reign. He founded the Bulak Museum, and encouraged excavations on the sites of the ancient cities of Egypt.

1863. Isma'il, son of Ibrahim Pasha, and grandson of Muhammad Ali, was born in 1830. He was made Khedive in 1867. He caused railways, docks, and canals to be made, systems of telegraphs and postage to be established; he built sugar factories, and endeavoured to advance the material welfare of Egypt. The Suez Canal was opened during his reign (1869). He greatly extended the boundaries of Egypt, and obtained possession of Suakin (Sauakin), Masowa (Masau'a), and two ports in the Gulf of Aden, a part of the Somali coast, a large part of the frontier of Abyssinia, and the Province of Darfur. The tribute paid by him to the Porte amounted to nearly ^700,000. During his reign the national debt of Egypt became so great, that a Commission was appointed to enquire what steps should be taken in the matter. In 1879, as a result of pressure put upon the Porte, Isma'il was dethroned, and Tewfik, his eldest son, was appointed to succeed him.

882. Massacre of Europeans in June; bombardment of Alexandria by the English fleet in July; occupation of Egypt by English troops; defeat of 'Arabi Pasha.

885. Murder of Gordon, and the abandonment of the Sudan.

886-1890. English troops continue to occupy Egypt.

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The Ancient Egyptians called Egypt J ^ Baq or

© Baqet; i U \ Ta-mera; and? I

Kamt. Baq seems to refer to Egypt as the olive-producing country, and Ta-mera as the land of the inundation; the name by which it is most commonly called in the inscriptions is 'Kam, i.e., "Black,!' from the darkness of its soil. It was also called the "land of the sycamore," and the land of "the eye of Horus" (i.e., the Sun). It was divided by

the Egyptians into two parts:. I. Upper Egypt g^ssT1

Ta-res or g^sf=f © Ta-qema, "the southern land and

II. Lower Egypt 5=5^"^, Ta-meh, "the northern land."

The kings of Egypt styled themselves suten net, "king of the North and South," and neb taui, "lord of two earths."* The country was divided into nomes, the number of which is variously given; the list given by some of the classical authorities contains thirty-six, but judging by the monuments the number was nearer forty. The nome (hesp) was divided into four parts; 1, the capital town (nut); 2, the cultivated land; 3, the marshes, which could only at times be used for purposes of cultivation; and 4, the canals, which had to be kept clear and provided with sluices, etc.,

* As ruler of the two countries, each king wore the crown fflf

which was make up of the User, or red crown, representing the

northern part of Egypt, and , the bet', or white crown, representing the southern part of Egypt.

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