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polis Magna, where the crocodile and its worshippers were detested. The Temple of Edfu, for which alone both the ancient and modern towns were famous, occupied 180 years three months and fourteen days, that is to say it was begun during the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes I., B.C. 237, and finished B.c. 57. It resembles that ot Uenderah in many respects, but its complete condition marks it out as one of the most remarkable buildings in Egypt, and its splendid towers, about 112 feet high, make its general magnificence very striking: The space enclosed by the walls measures 450 x 120 feet; the front of the propylon from side to side measures about 252 feet. Passing through the door the visitor enters a court, around three sides of which runs a gallery supported on thirty-two pillars. The first and second halls, A, B, have eighteen and twelve pillars respectively; passing through chambers C and D, the shrine E is reached, where stood a granite naos in which a figure of Horus, to whom the temple is dedicated, was preserved. This naos was made by Nectanebus I., a king of the XXXth dynasty, B.C. 378.

The pylons are covered with battle scenes, and the walls are inscribed with the names and sizes of the various chambers in the building, lists of names of places, etc.; the name of the architect, I-eni-hetep, or Imouthis, has also been inscribed. From the south side of the pylons, and from a small chamber on each side of the chamber C, staircases ascended to the roof.

The credit of clearing out the temple of Edfu belongs to M. Mariette. Little more than twenty-five years ago the mounds of rubbish outside reached to the top of its walls, and certain parts of the roof were entirely covered over with houses and stables.


Hagar (or Gebel) Silsileh, 541^ miles from Cairo, on the east and west banks of the river, derives its name probably not from the Arabic word of like sound meaning "chain," but fronvthe Coptic XlxiXxeX, meaning "stone

wall"; the place is usually called ^"5TM^ Chennu in hieroglyphic texts.. The ancient Egyptians heie quarried the greater part of the sandstone used, by them in their buildings, and;the names of the kings, inscribed in the caves here show that these quarries were used from the earliest to the latest periods. The most extensive of these are to be found on the east bank of the river, but thost on the west bank contain the interesting tablets of Amen-em-neb, a king of the XVIIIth dynasty, who is represented conquering the Ethiopians, Seti I., Rameses II. his son, Meneptah, etc. At Silsileh the Nile was worshipped, and the little temple which Rameses II. built in this place seems to have been dedicated chiefly to it. At this point the Nile narrows very much, and it is generally thought that a cataract once existed here; there is, however, no evidence to show when the Nile broke through and swept such a barrier, if it ever existed, away.


Kom Ombo, 556^ miles from Cairo, on the east bank of the Nile, was an important place at all periods of Egyptian history; it was called by the Egyptians ^ , Pa-Sebek, "the temple of Sebek " (the crocodile god), and ^, Nubit, and AJL&W by the Copts. The oldest

object here is a sandstone gateway which Thothmes III. dedicated to the god Sebek. The larger temple was begun by Ptolemy VII. Philometor, and the building was continued by his immediate successors; it has two entrances, and is dedicated to Horus and Sebek. Unlike other Egyptian temples, it has neither dromos nor propylon; the portico was supported by fifteen pillars, thirteen of which are still standing, and the hall contained ten. This temple measured about 185 feet x 114 feet; all its walls and columns were covered with coloured hieroglyphics, and the cornice which ran round the portico and hall was exceedingly fine. To the north-west of this temple is a smaller sandstone temple which was dedicated to Isis (?) Both temples stood in an enclosure which measured about 460 x 400 yards, on each side of which was a thick crude brick wall; on the south and south-east sides there was a door.



Aswan (or Uswan), the southern limit of Egypt proper, 583 miles from Cairo, on the east bank of the river, called in Egyptian R £ , Coptic co*T«i.rt, was called by the Greeks Syene, which stood on the slope of a hill to the south-west of the present town. Properly speaking Syene was the island of Elephantine. In the earliest Egyptian

inscriptions it is called fj^^.or^jt^^^,

Abu, i.e., "the district of the elephant," and it formed the metropolis of the first nome of Upper Egypt. As we approach the time of the Ptolemies, the name Sunnu, i.e., the town on the east bank of the Nile, from whence comes the Arabic name Aswan, takes the place of Abu. The town obtained great notoriety among the ancients from the fact that Eratosthenes and Ptolemy considered it to lie on the tropic of Cancer, and to be the most northerly point where, at the time of the summer solstice, the sun's rays fell vertically; as a matter of fact, however, the town lies o' 37' 23" north of the tropic of Cancer. There was a famous well there, into which the sun was said to shine at the summer solstice, and to illuminate it in every part. In the time of the Romans three cohorts were stationed here,* and the town was of considerable importance. In the twelfth century of our era it was the seat of a bishop. Of its size in ancient days

* It is interesting to observe that the Romans, like the British, held Egypt by garrisoning three places, viz. Aswan, Babylon (Cairo), and Alexandria. The garrison at Aswan defended Egypt from foes on the south, and commanded the entrance of the Nile; the garrison at Babylon guarded the end of the Nile valley and the entrance to the Delta; and the garrison at Alexandria protected the country from invasion by sea.

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