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sued for peace. In the reign of Diocletian the greater part of the country south of Phila e was ceded to the Nubians or Ethiopians. The principal tribes of the Ethiopians in ancient days were i. Blemmyes and Megabari, 2. Icthyophagi, 3. Macrobii, and 4. Troglodyte.

After leaving Philae, the first place of interest passed is Dabod, on the west bank of the river, 599^ miles from Cairo. At this place, called Q © Ta-het in the

inscriptions, are the ruins of a temple founded by At'a-charAmen,* a king of Ethiopia, who reigned about the middle of the third century B.C. The names of Ptolemy VII. Philometor and Ptolemy IX. Physcon are found engraved upon parts of the building. Dabod probably stands on the site of the ancient Parembole, a port or castle on the borders of Egypt and Ethiopia, and attached alternately to each kingdom. During the reign of Diocletian it was ceded to the Nubas by the Romans, and it was frequently attacked by the Blemmyes from the east bank of the river. At Kardash, on the west bank of the river, 615 miles from Cairo, are the ruins of a temple and a quarry; seven miles further south, on the west bank of the river, is Wadi Tafah, where there are also some ruins; they are however of little interest.


Kalabshi, on the west bank of the riverj 629 miles from Cairo, stands on the site of the classical Talmis, called in

hieroglyphics Thermeset, and t | jj

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Ka-hefennu; it stands immediately on the Tropic of Cancer. The god of this town was called ^, Sa, Merul or Melul, the Mandulis or Malulis of the Greeks. At Kalabshi there are the ruins of two temples of considerable interest. The larger of these, which is one of the largest temples in Nubia, appears to have been built upon the site of an ancient Egyptian temple founded by Thothmes III., B.C. 1600, and Amenophis II., B.C. 1566, for on the pronaos this latter monarch is representing offering to the god Amsu and the Ethiopian god Merul or Melul. It seems to have been restored in Ptolemaic times, and to have been considerably added to by several of the Roman emperors—Augustus, Caligula, Trajan, etc. From the appearance of the ruins it would seem that the building was wrecked either immediately before or soon after it was completed; some of the chambers were plastered over and used for chapels by the early Christians. A large number of Greek and Latin inscriptions have been found engraved on the walls of this temple, and from one of them we learn that the Blemmyes were frequently defeated by Silco, king of the Nubae and Ethiopians, about the end of the third century of our era.

At Bet el-Wall, a short distance from the larger temple, is the interesting rock-hewn temple which was made to commemorate the victories of Rameses II. over the Ethiopians. On the walls of the court leading into the small hall are some beautifully executed sculptures, representing the Ethiopians bringing before the king large quantities of articles of value, together with gifts of wild and tame animals, after their defeat. Many of the objects depicted must have come from a considerable distance, and it is evident that in those early times Talmis was the great central market to which the products and wares of the Sudan were brought for sale and barter. The sculptures are executed with great freedom and spirit, and when the colours upon them were fresh they must have formed one of the most striking sights in Nubia. Some years ago casts of these interesting sculptures were taken by Mr. Bonomi, at the expense of Mr. Hay, and notes on the colours were made; these two casts, painted according to Mr. Bonomi's notes, are now set up on the walls in the Fourth Egyptian Room in the British Museum (Northern Gallery), and are the only evidences extant of the former beauty of this little rock-hewn temple, for nearly every trace of colour has vanished from the walls. The scenes on the battle-field are of great interest.

Between Kalabshi and Dendur, on the west bank of the river, 642 miles from Cairo, there is nothing of interest to be seen; at Dendur are the remains of a temple built by

Augustus, Pa-aa, where this emperor is shown

making offerings to Amen, Osiris, Isis, and Sati. At Gerf Hussen, on the west bank of the river, 651 miles from Cairo, are the remains of a rock-hewn temple built by Rameses II. in honour of Ptah, Hathor, and Aneq; the work is poor and of little interest. This village marks the site of the ancient Tutzis.

Dakkeh, on the west bank of the river, 662J miles from Cairo, marks the site of the classical Pselcis, the □ p Q P-selket of the hieroglyphics. About B.C. 23 the Ethiopians attacked the Roman garrisons at Phite and Syene, and having defeated them, overran Upper Egypt. Petronius, the successor of ^Elius Gallus, marching with less than 10,000 infantry and 800 horse against the rebel army of 30,000 men, compelled them to retreat to Pselcis, which he afterwards besieged and took. "Part of the insurgents were driven into the city, others fled into the uninhabited country; and such as ventured upon the passage of the river, escaped to a neighbouring island, where there were not many crocodiles on account of the current. Among the fugitives were the generals of Candace,* queen of the Ethiopians in our time, a masculine woman, and who had lost an eye. Petronius, pursuing them in rafts and ships, took them all, and despatched them immediately to Alexandria." (Strabo, XVII., 1, 54.) From Pselcis Petronius advanced to Premnis (Ibrim), and afterwards to Napata, the royal seat of Candace, which he razed to the ground. As long as the Romans held Ethiopia, Pselcis was a garrison town.

ThetempleatDakkehwasbuiltby[g&TSH|] Arq-Amen anch t'etta mer Auset, "Arq-Amen, living for ever, beloved of Isis," having the prenomen

Asst^t^®] "Amen M dnch at fid." In the sculptures on the ruins which remain Arq-Amen is shown standing between Menthu-Ra, lord of Thebes, and Atmu the god of Heliopolis, and sacrificing to Thoth, who promises to give him a long and prosperous life as king. Arq-Amen is called the "beautiful god, son of Chnemu and Osiris, born of Sati and Isis, nursed by Aneq and Nephthys," etc. According to Diodorus, the priests of Meroe in Ethiopia were in the habit of sending, "whensoever they please, a messenger to the king, commanding him to put himself to death; for that such is the pleasure of the gods; . . . and so in former ages, the kings without force or compulsion of arms, but merely bewitched by a fond superstition, observed the custom; till Ergamenes (Arq-Amen), a king of Ethiopia, who reigned in the time of Ptolemy II., bred up in the Grecian discipline and philosophy, was the first that was so bold as to reject and despise such commands. For this prince . . . marched with a considerable body of men to the sanctuary, where stood the golden temple of the Ethiopians, and there cut the throats of all the priests."

* Candace was a title borne by all the queens of Meroe.

(Bk. III., chap, vi.) Many of the Ptolemies appear to have made additions to the temple at Dakkeh.

On the east bank of the river opposite Dakkeh is Kuban,

village which is said to mark the site of Tachompso or Metachompso, "the place of crocodiles." As Pselcis increased, so Tachompso declined, and became finally merely a suburb of that town; it was generally called Contra-Pselcis. During the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties this place was well fortified by the Egyptians, and on many blocks of stone close byare found the names of Thothmes III., Heru-em-heb, and Rameses II. It appears to have been the point from which the wretched people condemned to labour in the gold mines in the desert of the land of Akita set out; and an interesting inscription on a stone found here relates that Rameses II., having heard that much gold existed in this land, which was inaccessible on account of the absolute want of water, bored a well in the mountain, twelve cubits deep, so that henceforth men could come and go by this land. His father Seti I. had bored a well 120 cubits deep, but no water appeared in it.

About 20 miles from Dakkeh, and 690 from Cairo, on the west bank of the river, is Wadi Sebua, or the "Valley of the Lions," where there are the remains of a temple partly built of sandstone, and partly excavated in the rock; the place is so called on account of the dromos of sixteen sphinxes which led up to the temple. On the sculptures which still remain here may be seen Rameses II., the builder of the temple, "making an offering of incense to father Amen, the king of the gods," who says to him, "I give to thee all might, and I give the world to thee, in peace." Elsewhere the king is making offerings to Tefnut, lady of heaven Nebt-hetep, Horus and Thoth, each of whom promises to bestow some blessing upon him. On another part is a boat containing a ram-headed god, and Harmachis,



Baka, in the hieroglyphics, a

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