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seated in a shrine, accompanied by Horus, Thoth, Isis, and Mat; the king kneels before him in adoration, and the god says that he will give him myriads of years and festivals; on each side is a figure of Rameses II. making, an offering. Beneath this scene is a figure of a Christian saint holding a key, and an inscription on each side tells us that it is meant to represent Peter the Apostle. This picture and the remains of plaster on the walls show that the chambers of the temple were used by the early Christians as chapels.

Korosko, on the east bank of the river, 703 miles from Cairo, was from the earliest times the point of departure for merchants and others going to and fro from the Sudan; from the western bank there was a caravan route across into north Africa. In ancient days the land which lay to the

east of Korosko was called -^~| s^Tj Uaua,

and as early as the VIth dynasty the officer Una visited it in order to obtain blocks of acacia wood for his king Pepi II. An inscription, found a few hundred yards to the east of the town,records that the country round about was conquered intheXIIthdynastyby Amenemhat I. ^0 ] pj.

About seven miles off is the battle-field of Toski, on the west bank of the Nile. A capital idea of the general character of Nubian scenery can be obtained by ascending the mountain, which is now, thanks to a good path, easily accessible.

At Amada, on the west bank of the river, 711 miles from Cairo, is a small but interesting temple, which appears to have been founded in the XIIth dynasty by Usertsen II., who conquered Nubia by setting fire to standing crops, by carrying away the wives and cattle, and by cutting down the men on their way to and from the wells. This temple was repaired by Thothmes III. and other kings of the XVIIIth dynasty.

At Derr, on the east bank of the river, 715 miles from Cairo, is a small, badly executed rock-hewn temple of the time of Rameses II., where the usual scenes representing the defeat of the Ethiopians are depicted. The king is accompanied by a tame "lion which follows after his

majesty, ^^(| ^5^^^ f ^ maiu Jesi en

hen-f, to slay "Close to the temple is the rock

stele of the prince Amen-em-heb of the same period; the temple was dedicated to Amen-Ra. The Egyptian name of

the town was ^ cfs ^ , Pa-Ra pa temai, "the

town of the temple of the sun."

Thirteen miles beyond Derr, 728 miles from Cairo, also on the east bank of the river, stands Ibrim, which marks the site of the ancient Primis, or Premnis, called in the

Egyptian inscriptions ^ (j rJLri , Maamam. This

town was captured during the reign of Augustus by Petronius on his victorious march upon Napata. In the first and third naos at Primis are representations of Nehi, the governor of Nubia, with other officers, bringing gifts before Thothmes III., which shows that these caves were hewn during the reign of this king; and in another, Rameses II. is receiving adorations from Setau, prince ot Ethiopia, and a number of his officers. At Anibe, just opposite Ibrim, is the grave of Penni, the governor of the district, who died during the reign of Rameses VI.


Abu Simbel, on the west bank of the river, 762 miles from Cairo, is the classical Aboccis, and the place called \ J r^^i Abshek in the Egyptian inscriptions. Around, or near the temple, a town of considerable size

The spelling of this name is doubtful.


once stood; all traces of this have, however, disappeared. To the north of the great temple, hewn in the living rock, is a smaller temple, about 84 feet long, which was dedicated to the goddess Hathor by Rameses II. and his wife Nefert-Ari. The front is ornamented with statues of the king, his wife, and some of his children, and over the door are his names and titles. In the hall inside are six square Hathor-headed pillars also inscribed with the names and titles of Rameses and his wife. In the small chamber at the extreme end of the temple is an interesting scene in which the king is making an offering to Hathor in the form of a cow; she is called the "lady of Abshek," and is standing behind a figure of the king.

The chief object of interest at Abu Simbel is the Great Temple built by Rameses II. to commemorate his victory over the Cheta in north-east Syria; it is the largest and finest Egyptian monument in Nubia, and for simple grandeur and majesty is second to none in all Egypt. This temple is hewn out of the solid grit-stone rock to a depth of 185 feet, and the surface of the rock, which originally sloped down to the river, was cut away for a space of about 90 feet square to form the front of the temple, which is ornamented by four colossal statues of Rameses II., 66 feet high, seated on thrones, hewn out of the living rock. The cornice is, according to the drawing by Lepsius, decorated with twenty-one cynocephali, and beneath it, in the middle, is a line of hieroglyphics, ^ \ ^37, td.-na nek

cinch usr neb, "I give to thee all life and strength," on the right side of which are four figures of Ra, and eight

cartouches containing the prenomen of Rameses II., with a uraeus on each side; on the left side are four figures of Amen, ^, and eight cartouches as on the right. The line of boldly cut hieroglyphics below reads, "The living Horus, the mighty bull, beloved of Mat, king of the North and South, Usr-Mat-Ra setep en-Ra, son of the Sun, Rameses, beloved of Amen, beloved of Harmachis the great god."

the four colossi had the name of Rameses II. inscribed upon each shoulder and breast. On the leg of one of these are several interesting Greek inscriptions, which were thought to have been written by the Egyptian troops who marched into Ethiopia in the days of Psammetichus I.

The interior of the temple consists of a large hall, in which are eight columns with large figures of Osiris about 17 feet high upon them, and from which eight chambers open; a second hall having four square columns; and a third hall, without pillars, from which open three chambers. In the centre chamber is an altar and four seated figures, viz., Harmachis, Rameses II., Amen-Ra, and Ptah; the first two are coloured red, the third blue, and the fourth white. In the sculptures on the walls Rameses is seen offering to Amen-Ra, Sechet, Harmachis, Amsu, Thoth, and other deities; a list of his children occurs, and many small scenes of considerable importance. The subjects of the larger scenes are, as was to be expected, repreT sentations of the principal events in the victorious battles of the great king, in which he appears putting his foes to death with the weapons which Harmachis has given to him. The accompanying hieroglyphics describe these scenes with terse accuracy.

One of the most interesting inscriptions at Abu Simbel is that found on a slab, which states that in the fifth year of the reign of Rameses II., his majesty was in the land of T'ah, not far from Kadesh on the Orontes. The outposts kept a sharp look-out, and when the army came to the south of the town of Shabtun, two of the spies of the Shasu came

Over the door is a statue of Harmachis,
side of him is a figure of the king offering


, and on each J . Each of

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