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that Anubis, the god of the dead, was the result of the union.

Set, ^j^ji tne god of evil, appears to have been worshipped in the earliest times. He was the opponent of Horus in a three days' battle, at the end of which he was defeated. He was worshipped by the Hyksos, and also by the Cheta; but in the later days of the Egyptian empire he was supposed to be the god of evil, and was considered to be the chief fiend and rebel against the sun-god Ra.

Anubis, (| 3, Anpu, the god of the dead, is usually represented with the head of a jackal.

Seb, JJ j^j, was husband of Nut, the sky, and father of Osiris, Isis, and the other gods of that cycle.

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Thoth, , , Tehuti, 'the measurer,' was the scribe of

the gods, and the measurer of time and inventor of numbers. In the judgment hall of Osiris he stands by the side of the balance holding a palette and reed ready to record the result of the weighing as announced by the dog-headed ape who sits on the middle of the beam of the scales. In one aspect he is the god of the moon, and is represented with the head of an ibis.

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Chonsu, * II ^\ M , was associated with Amen-Ra

and Mut in the Theban triad. He was the god of the moon, and is represented as hawk-headed and wearing the lunar disk and crescent. His second name was Nefer-hetep, and he was worshipped with great honour at Thebes.

Sebek, the crocodile-headed god, was worshipped

at Kom-Ombos and in the Fayum.

I-em-hetep (Imouthis), ^ ^* was the son of Ptah. ^

Shu, p and Tefnut, ° O ^j, were the children

of Seb and Nut, and represented sunlight and moisture respectively.

Athor, or Hathor, ^ , Het-Heru, 'the house of

Horus,' is identified with Nut, the sky, or place in which she brought forth and suckled Horus. She was the wife of Atmu, a form of Ra. She is represented as a woman wearing a headdress in the shape of a vulture, and above it a disk and horns. She is called 'mistress of the gods,' 'lady of the sycamore,' 'lady of the west,' and 'Hathor of Thebes.' She is the female power of nature, and has some of the attributes of Isis, Nut, and Mut. She is often represented under the form of a cow coming out of the Theban hills.


Maat, d the goddess of 'Law,' was the

daughter of the Sun-god Ra.; she is represented as wearing the feather ^, emblematic of law ^jj.

Hapi, ^ ^j, the god of the Nile, is represented wearing a cluster of flowers on his head ;he is coloured red and green, probably to represent the colours of the water of the Nile immediately before and just after the beginning of the inundation.

Serapis, i.e., Osiris-Apis, jj^^^i was a §°d introduced into Egypt during the reign of the Ptolemies; * he is represented with the head of a bull wearing a disk and uraeus. He is said to be the second son of Ptah. The worship of Apis at Memphis goes back to the earliest times; the Serapeum, discovered there by M. Mariette, contained the tombs of Apis bulls from the time of Amenophis III. (about B.C. 1550) down to the time of the Roman Empire. See page 155.

*" the Lagids, as well as the Seleucids, were careful of disturbing the foundations of the old religion of the country; they

introduced the Greek god of the lower world, Pluto, into the

native worship, under the hitherto little mentioned name of the Egyptian god Serapis, and then gradually transferred to this the old Osiris worship." Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Umpire, Vol. II., p. 265.




Alexandria was founded B.C. 332 by Alexander the Great who began to build his city on the little town of Rakoti, just opposite to the island of Pharos. King Ptolemy I. Soter made this city his capital: and having founded the famous library and museum, he tried to induce the most learned men of his day to live there. His son and successor Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, continued the wise policy of his father, and Alexandria became famous as a seat of learning. The keeper of the museum during the reign of Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. was Aristophanes of Byzantium. During the siege of the city by the Romans in the time of Caasar, B.C. 48, the library of the museum was burnt; * but Antony afterwards gave Cleopatra a large collection of manuscripts which formed the nucleus of a second library. In the early centuries of our era the people of Alexandria quarrelled perpetually among themselves ,f the subjects of dispute

* This collection numbered 200,000 MSS., and formed the famous Pergamenian library founded by Eumenes II., king of Pergamus, B.C. 197.

t" the Alexandrian rabble took on the slightest pretext to

stones and to cudgels. In street uproar, says an authority, himself Alexandrian, the Egyptians are before all others; the smallest spark suffices here to kindle a tumult. On account of neglected visits, on account of the confiscation of spoiled provisions, on account of exclusion from a bathing establishment, on account of a dispute between the slave of an Alexandrian of rank and a Roman foot-soldier as to the value or non-value of their respective slippers, the legions were

under the necessity of charging among the citizens of Alexandria

In these riots the Greeks acted as instigators but in the further

course of the matter the spite and savageness of the Egyptian proper came into the conflict. The Syrians were cowardly, and as soldiers the Egyptians were so too; but in a street tumult they were able to develope a courage worthy of a better cause." (Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire, Vol. II., p. 265.)


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