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establishes peonage, and overturns all that had been accomplished by the adherents of lawful liberty in Mexico in a quarter of a century. So Spain wantonly attacks Chili, puts the people of the republic to the expense of defending themselves, and thus retards the industrial development of that free nation. Thus, too, she intrigues in Peru, ostensibly to "revindicate" obsolete rights and claims, while her real object is to keep that growing republic in turmoil, to foster the spirit of factions, and to overturn and destroy the beneficial results of free government. It is alike our duty and our interest to put a stop to these invasions of America by European despots."


On the origin and Character of the


In acordance with the following Act, which we copy from the Mercantile Chronicle of Panama, of December 12th, 1865.


In the city of Panama, on the 8th of November, 1865, a large number of Columbians, resident in this Capital, assembled in the porticos of the Cabildo House, for the purpose of taking into consideration the attitude which this country ought to assume in the contention which has arisen between Chili and Spain; Señores Manuel Maria Diaz and Pablo Arosemena being named respectively President and Secretary of the meeting; and the former having stated in a fitting and well-applauded speech the object of the reunion, the latter made the following propositions, which were unanimously approved:

1st-The Republic of Chili, in the unjust war to which she has been provoked by the agents of Spain in the Pacific, deserves the sympathies and aid of republican America. 2d-Consequently, the persons who compose this meeting consider it an inevitable duty to aid the sacred cause of Chili by all the lawful means within their reach.

3rd-Let a commission of three persons be named, who


shall take charge of setting forth the plan that ought to be adopted to secure so great an end.

By virtue of the will of the meeting, the President appointed Señores Gabriel Obarrio, Pablo Arosemena, and Mariano Arosemena to compose the said commission.

The President, on behalf of those assembled, then invited Señor Benjamin Vicuña Mackenna, who was present, to address the meeting, to which that gentleman responded in the following words, which we translate from the Spanish:

SR. VICUÑA MACKENNA, said: Gentlemen, although I am in this city nothing more than a simple citizen of the Republic of Chile, I cannot do less than rise to respond to the amiable invitation of the President of this noble and patriotic meeting, and offer you my profound gratitude for the manifestation you have made in behalf of my country. I cherish the deep conviction that the generous resolutions which you have adopted will resound as an echo of fraternity in the hearts of all my countrymen, who are also yours, because, gentlemen, if in the days of peace we have the right to call ourselves friends and natural allies, in the hour of danger we are nothing less than brothers. Your noble conduct is proving this. [Cries of Yes! Yes!) I did not wish, gentlemen, to pass beyond this simple expression of my personal gratitude towards you. It was my desire to assist at this splendid reunion in the character of a mere sojourner on the Isthmus, and though it be indeed true that I have been honored by my government with an important political commission, this does not give me diplomatic character to impart a determinate importance to my words. Nevertheless, on finding myself in the midst of you, and on listening to your ovations to my country, these two questions have occured to me, which I also address to you. Why does Spain make war on Chile? Is this war against Chile only, or is it against all America? Why does Spain make war against Chile? Ah! You well know, gentlemen. Spain makes war against my country because she presented herself to sustain the honor and dignity of America, without any other advice, without

any other authority than her own dignity:-(Applause) -because she made out of the attack on the Chinchas a personal and common honor, of immediate security, of future independence for herself-for all the sister republics of the New World; because, in fine, she was the first among them in offering herself, a noble holocaust, to a disinterested patriotism-to an abnegation without conditions. (True! and vehement applause for Chile.) But Chile, gentlemen, could not act in any other manner. Could she break the traditions of her glorious past, which present her as always associated with all the sacrifices and with all the ancient American glories, in which her banner had floated in the breeze of battle together with the banner of La Plata; together with the banner of Peru; together with the banner of old and glorious Columbia, from Maipú to Pichincha? Could Chile forget that the moderate prestige which she has cultivated among her sisters on the Continent she owes only to her international policy, always just and honorable, always fraternal in council, always disinterested in aid, always intrepid

-permit me this word of patriotic pride-always intrepid in her undertakings in common with them? Could Chile, in fine, shelter herself under a cowardly silence, and hiding her noble head-her more noble heart-as in a state of stupid torpidity, between her sea and her mountains, avail herself of the impunity which her natural position might seem to offer to her selfishness, and abandon thus a brother wounded so deeply, without asking for him and with him the reparation due? No, Chile could have done nothing like what would have been her disgrace, and consequently she placed herself from the first moment on the weaker side, on the side of the injured, the neighbor, the brother. (Applause.) But was there by chance in this a violation of any international right? Was a public motive given to Spain for complaint, for secret grievance-pretext even, I will not say for this war, which will always seem a madness in the eyes of enlightened nations, but for a diplomatic rupture which is the utmost limit to which nations, in the present condition. of public right, are accustomed to go, in manifesting their mutual dissatisfaction? With my hand placed upon my heart, I declare that no public nor private act took place in Chile that should bring upon her the animadver

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sion of Spain. There are, to respond for my veracity, those noble and patriotic notes of the cabinet of Santiage, which reduce to mere dust every fictitious circumstance of recrimination which had been raised against Chile by the mischievous emissaries of Spain. There is not in them a single charge which has not been dispelled. There is not a single accusation which has not been confronted and confounded as an error or as an imposture. There is not a single affront which has not been answered with the noble dignity of right and moderation. (Vehement acclammations of "Long live Chile"-"Long live President Perez ""Long live the Covarrubias Ministry.") But, gentlemen, when the world pronounces as you do between Chile and Spain, it is evident that the former gains already half of the contest. I may in truth say to-day, that in the conflict between nations there are two battles to be fought. The first is the battle of right. The second is the battle of force. A day will arrive in which humanity will not have to submit save to the former of these tests, when its grievances will be decided by humanity itself; but though that hour has not yet arrived for us, its dawn announces itself with vivid brillancy. See what has happened yesterday in Italy. See what is taking place today in the Great Republic of the North. See what will take place to-morrow in a republic-unhappy, but a sister, and beloved of our heart-in the republic of Mexico. (Cheers for Mexico. Cheers for Benito Juarez.) See also what will take place to-morrow in another republic, sister likewise of Mexico sister likewise of the United States of Columbia— in the republic of Chile! (Applause.) Yes, gentlemen, Chile has already gained that first battle of right, and she has gained it not on the paper of her own chancery, but all the representatives of neutral nations, common friends of Chile and Spain-and from whom perhaps the latter believed herself to have a better right to expect a favorable decision-have declared her victory in an explicit, solemn and durable manner. There remains then only the battle of force to be decided; and I hope, gentlemen, it will be decided soon and gloriously. (Applause.) There is not in this a challenge offered to Spain. On the contrary, Chile, whose prosperity was borne on the thousand wings of progress, has not desired this war, has not provoked it, would avoid it even at this very hour at the cost of all sacrifices,

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