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with the exception of one only-that of her honor. (Vehement acclamations.) But when that war is thrust in our face by an uncivil ultimatum, selecting the grand anniversary of the country's birth for the affront, and consummating it afterwards with the scandalous pillage of our unarmed bays-what remains to be done but to accept that war and prepare ourselves for the combat? (Applause.) Yes, we have accepted it, and we will march cheerfully to encounter the common enemy, after having invested in the Ark of the country, our gold, the fruit of noble labor; and we are disposed to water her fields, which that labor had fertilized, with the best blood of our brothers. (Bravo! Bravo!) Now, I ask, shall we fight alone while America, for whose cause we have unsheathed the sword, look passively at the struggle? (Unanimous cries of No! No!) Or shall we renew, gentlemen, those grand days when Bolivar and San Martin breaking loose like a sublime tempest from the furthest extremities of America, discharged in the heart of those mountains which the hand of GOD has placed all along our boundaries as a common bulwark, the thunderbolt of Ayacucho, the thunderbolt of independence and of the liberty of America? To you who are the sons of Bolivar and of Santander, of Sucre and of Miranda, to you who are the representatives of the three nations of Old Columbia (which heaven grant may again reunite in one reconciled family), to you it belongs to answer. (Enthusiastic acclamations-prolonged Cheers for Bolivar, San Martin, and Cochrane, etc.) And at this appropriate moment permit me to make a pause and bring forward the second question which I introduced at the beginning. Is this war only against Chile or is it against all America? Spain has always given, as the only reason of her aggressions from Valparaiso to Panamá, the respect of her citizens violated by our people and governments, giving for their foundation the death of two country Jaborers in a domestic broil, I know not in what farm in the vallies of Perú. But the accusation in itself, was it just, was it true? No, gentlemen, on the contrary, permit me to state that the accusation is based only on the most abject, iniquitous of frauds, the fraud of ingratitude. More than sufficient right has the American to detest the name of Spaniard, especially in the present century and on the present soil. I need make no comments on this.

I am treading the soil which Morillo conquered. I am standing on the country of Caldas and of Pola Salavarrieta (prolonged applause.) But the easy and magnanimous heart of Americans soon forgot all this, and the Spaniards returned to find among us, I will not say an asylum but, a home, a new country. See what is taking place in all the great cities of South America, in Caracas, in Bogotá, in Buenos Ayres, in Quito, in Lima, in Santiago, in Panamá itself. In all parts you will find Spaniards advantageously located in commerce, in the clergy, in public posts, in society, at the very firesides of the Americans who have given them fortune, family, and as much or more happiness than would have fallen to them in their own far off country. (It is true! It is true!) If this be so, how dares the Spanish Government assert so vile and ungratefui a calumny? How pretend to exact from us that respect which of ourselves we freely give; for, gentlemen, respect is not decreed (laughter and applause) by pointing at our breasts the mouths of her cannon. The truth is, that Spain, as a people, does not feel, and does not believe anything of this kind. I know Spain. I have sat, not long since, at her firesides. Relatives, by me beloved, live there. I feel the generous blood of her race boil in my veins, and I esteem Spain because I have a memory, and I cherish in my republican heart the sentiment of justice for all. But the Spanish government, which does not feel or believe this either, and which makes its first victim the noble but unwary and credulous Spanish people, fosters the imposture for its own ends, miserable ends which Spain herself will some day repudiate. The violation of respect, therefore, is nothing else than a pretext for systematic aggression for the war already general against America. The true cause is, on the contrary, that which is the least respectable in the intercourse of communities, it is the guano. (Applause.) And otherwise, do you believe, gentlemen, that to pursue that chimerical respect for her subjects, Spain would have unfolded this policy uniformly aggressive and invasive towards all those that were formerly her colonies? Do you believe that General Gandara was sent to the solitary and once obscure shores of unconquerable Santo Domingo solely in search of respect? Do you believe that the valiant, the honorable General Prim took a

Spanish army to Mexico, by virtue of a tripartite treaty extorted from France and England, in coercion of that same respect which Spain-proud Spain, declared herself impotent to obtain alone? Do you believe that Admiral Pareja, the least respectful of the courteous Spanish Marine, came to this coast in search of respect in the Pacific? Do you believe that for this same respect the Commisario Mazarredo let loose on the world his famous doctrine of revindication? And be it understood, citizens of the United States of Columbia, be it understood that you have not yet been recognised by Spain as an independent people (several voices, "We do not wish it! We do not need it!") be it understood that neither the Narvaez Ministry, nor the O'Donnell Ministry have disapproved, as the Pacheco Ministry did in the tribune- in the tribune alone-the principle of Mazarredo: and you well know that what one Ministry in Spain does, that which succeeds undoes; and that while one Minister is sent to adjust a treaty under the faith and honor of nations, another is sent to destroy it by cannon shots. (Applause.) But permit me to continue, bringing to mind what Spain has done to force from us respect for her sons. (laughter.) Do you believe that through respect for Mazarredo, for his poisoning in a glass of beer on board the steamer Paita, for his assassination by the clatter of empty kerosene cans, for his persecution in a fantastic hand-car to Colon by all the colored people of the Isthmus, do you think that for all these fabulous stories Spain would send and maintain in the Pacific the most powerful squadron that has been seen in these waters, and precisely at the time that her navy emerged from its secular prostration, when she most needed it on her own coast to sustain her rank as a nation of the first order which she had solicited; when it was urgent for her to collect it on the shores of Cuba now placed in the twofold danger of a triumphant insurrection in Santo Domingo and the abolition of slavery in North America, two terrible and intrusive infections which she can ward off only with a triple sanitary cordon of iron-clad ships? Do you believe, that Spain would send, as she did not delay in sending, new rëenforcements in support of that respect, that her ships may rot in listlessness in our harbors, making herself forgetful of that traditional history already converted into a proverb among our people,

that no ship of war that ever doubled Cape Horn with the Spanish flag has returned to view the waters of the Atlantic? [Applause and shouts of "Viva Lord Cochrane" !] And do you believe, in fine, that she would have claimed from Perú the payment of a prodigous sum of millions in which are included the expenses of the war of Independence, exacting for this outrage the double mortgage of her honor and her revenue? And do you believe, finally, that only in quest of respect Admiral Pareja exacted that Chile should burn a little powder for the penon of her Admiral's ship, and because she did not do so declares war against her and treacherously seizes her ships? Oh! No. It is essential that this undignified farce should be concluded, for us and for the world. It is essential that the armed hand of America should lift up the curtain of this comedy with which an attempt is made to deceive all nations and Spain herself; and to declare, once for all, that the cause is one, that the principle is common, that the danger is identical for all. For in truth, gentlemen, that which is being done is the excavation on our entire borders of one sepulchre, in which if they thrust us one by one it is only to render more facile the task of these royal gravediggers who still believe they do us an honor because, on easting our dead bodies in the pit, they enshroud us with their purple robes. (Bravos). And in this coming war, I should say, in this war raging this very day, permit me to point out two distinguished points which will have a vast influence in the development of this contest; the Chincha Islands, the sole object which Spain covets, and the Isthmus of Panamá, the sole strategetic route by which Europe can attack the Republics of the Pacific in their vulnerable side. And do not believe that the Chincha Islands should be always a property solely and exclusively American, because of the treasures which they contain, but because a maratime European Power of the first or second rank, once mistress of them, could maintain in the Pacific a squadron so powerful that it would be necessary for us to sail out of our ports with hats in our hands to plead permission of these new lords of this same sea which half a century ago we made ours by force of victory. [Applause.] And will all America consent that


this shall happen? Will England and America, apart from every moral affection, from every notion of justice, from every interest of the balance of power, tolerate that their commerce shall be submitted anew to the same laws which governed the Peninsular monopoly in the days of the famous affairs in Portobello and Panamá ? Will they consent that Spain, whose financial ruin reaches the last extremity, not to the utmost disgrace, according to the news which the steamer that arrived this very day at Colon has brought us, should cancel her bankruptcy with English capital, North American capital, the capital of all the markets of Europe, invested on a gigantic scale in the commerce of the Pacific? This, gentlemen, is what we shall know when the news arrives, from Europe and the United States in the early days of the coming year, of the effect which the conduct of Admiral Pareja has produced; and the war between Spain and Chili which, if to-day it be an isolated aggression, will to-morrow be a continental act. But with regard to what you will do on the Isthmus of Panamá, this route which to-day is the property of all free and enlightened nations, but which to-morrow may possibly be also the momentary property of invading rulers, we need not await news from any part. Will you consent, all the ports in the Pacific once closed, as I deeply hope they soon will be, to the Spanish squadron, that their public or private emmisaries should take from this Isthmus a single naval supply, a single grain of powder, a single grain of wheat, a single grain of sand ?, (Unanimous cries of No! No!) And if to sustain these noble intentions you should have to fight among your picturesque mountains, in the wild defiles of your grand railway, against a bold invader, I am sure of this, you will not fight alone. There will fight by your side every man of courage who has come to reside in this city, the centre of the universe from its furthermost extremities; there will fight with you the English, the German, the Scandinavian, the Italian, and above all there will fight with us, those sons of North America whom I perceive here in a considerable number; for all those men adore in their hearts that sublime motto, the Isthmus of gold, as eternal as the Isthmus of land on which we tread, and which must always unite the two Continents of America

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