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provoked by an attack as groundless as mercenary, deserves the respect and sympathy of all free countries, and especially of the United States, with which she is identified by community of institutions and by every consideration of interest, and whose gratitude she merits as a warm and devoted friend of the American Union in the hour of its greatest peril.
Resolved, That we admire the spirit and enterprise of the little navy of Chili, and rejoicc in the brilliant success which has crowned its endeavors in its contest with the arrogant flotilla of Spain.
Resolved, That the glorious example of Santo Domingo and the final triumph of the heroism and patience of her sons, should sustain and encourage the American republics in their struggles againt foreign aggression.
REMARKS OF B. VICUÑA MACKENNA.
CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES.-I offer you my sincere thanks for the manner in which you have received the resolutions which have been presented to you in favor of my country. Your kind sympathies, your enthusiastic applause, show that you have comprehended the true position of Chili in her quarrel with Spain. I entertain the hope, therefore, that you will adopt those resolutions, as an act of justice due to a country who knows how to fight for her honor and her liberty. (Applause.)
But permit me to address you, not as a man occupying a public position, of any nature whatever, but as one of the many members of the great community of those who love liberty, republicanism, and democracy.
And in that character, it is right that I should tell you that there, in that far away but noble land, in which I was born, your country is admired and loved, as you admire and love it; that there we learn in our mothers' laps to repeat, with profound reverence, the name of the father of your institutions, the name of George Washington(applause); that there, also, the young mothers of to-day teach their children in the cradle to pronounce and bless the name of the greatest redeemer that ages have seen since our Saviour-the name of Abraham Lincoln, of sacred and glorious memory. (Prolonged applause.)
But at the same time, let me also tell you, that beyond your southern frontiers there exists another America, sister to yours, unknown and forgotten by you, but which, if not so happy or so powerful as your country, is as worthy of your esteem and respect as any civilized nation of the globe whatever.
You well know, gentlemen, that calumny, ignorance, and, more than all, the secret intrigues of European Courts, and of their emissaries, have combined to misrepresent the existence of democracy in South America, and to nourish in her bosom the desolating struggle which is harassing her republics, without exhausting or exposing them to death.
Besides, it is necessary that each race should suffer for its original sins, and work out its own salvation. You had in the robust heart of your country the seed of Africa, and when you considered yourselves most secure in the support of your institutions, of your peace, and your progress, there broke loose upon you such a gigantic rebellion as the world had never seen.
Another such has happened to us. We had in our bosom the seed of Spain-the country of Europe which is nearest to Africa (applause and laughter)—and therefore we have struggled for half a century to exterminate the roots of ignorance, of fanaticism, and of pride, and to build upon their ruins the foundation of a republic. You have never done us that justice of comparison according to history and truth. You were taught by your own nature, by your customs, and by the spirit of liberty and of conscienciousness which your forefathers brought to the Rock of Plymouth, and therefore have been able to establish and extend your powerful republic, your invading and irresistible democracy. But who were our teachers in the difficult science of self-government? They were, gentlemen, those haughty conquerors who only lived to cut one another's throats, whose only delight was in the tumult of battle, and who, instead of giving to all who were born, or to all who came among them, the plough of William Penn, put in their hands the fratricidal sword of the Pizarros and of Hernan Cortes.
But, notwithstanding that recent and bloody struggle of the republics of the South, what does it prove, except their powerful and inextinguishable vitality?
Behold, gentlemen, that which has just taken place, and you will be convinced.
There existed in the midst of the Atlantic an island almost obscure and forgotten, which ancient feuds had exhausted. Spain, always blind and always greedy, believed it dead, and suddenly and traitorously surrounded it with a double circle of bayonets and cannon. And what followed? The obscure islanders rose like heroes, ancient feuds were forgotten, and the hateful flag of Spain, after having been dragged in the mire, was driven from the country by a handful of brave men, before the surprised world. (Applause.)
It was afterwards thought necessary to organise a triple alliance for the invasion of Mexico, in spite of the internal feuds which had exhausted it. But the canon of the 5th of May was enough to dissolve this plot; and to-day, after years of triumphs and defeats, and when the usurper boasted of having pacified the land which rejected him by blood and fire, the noise of the cannon is still heard upon the banks of the Rio Grande, as an echo of those which resounded in the Wilderness and at Atlanta.
And farther away, in Perú, where one single apostate sold his country for a little guano and a little gold, you will find a people rising against the traitor and the shamedriving out the former with ignominy, and showing themselves ready again to combat for honor and right.
And with respect to Chili. . . . But permit me to refrain from speaking of my country, and let me only point out to you, upon that flag suspended over our heads, that solitary star, which shines out so brilliantly from the blue which surrounds it. That star, gentlemen, is the emblem of Chili; that flag is the flag of my country-the same flag which, not long ago, floating in the breeze of victory, upon the mast of a small boat, was carried by brave hands within sight of the powerful squadron of the invaders, and there, almost within reach of their cannons, made the proud Castilians lower the standard of Isabel II. (Wild applause, the greater part of the audience rising to their feet, waving their hats and handkerchiefs for several minutes, shouting vivas and hurrahs for Chili.)
And still, gentlemen, remember that we won our independence by our own efforts, without the aid of any one. (Applause.) Remember that all Europe opposed our
emancipation, and we won it notwithstanding. ber that you yourselves had, by the side of your standard on the field of battle, the colors of France and Spain, while we had only our own national ensign, and all others were enemies. (Applause.) Remember, also, that alone we have maintained that independence for forty years; and, while Spain during the present century, has appealed three times to a stranger to sustain her own institutions to Wellington, in 1808; to Angouleme, in 1823; to Sir De Lacy Evans and the English legion, in 1834-we have maintained the respect of our enemies, without submitting ourselves to the humiliation of seekers of foreign intervention.
And do you know why we have succeeded in all this ? Because we also, gentlemen, have a Monroe Doctrine of our own. But it is not such a Monroe Doctrine as you have been proud of for forty years; to be sustained beneath the illuminated vault of this brilliant hall; to be talked of by great orators, or by the voice of the daily Press-but a practical doctrine, real, to be supported by acts, by treaties, by alliances, and which, unlike you, we have always defended with our blood and our swords. (Applause.)
And Chili, gentlemen, my country, I am proud to say is the republic of the South which has put itself at the head of this grand and generous movement of brotherhood in glory and sacrifice. It was Chili who sent aboard of one of her men-of-war a diplomatic agent to the shores of Central America, to arrest the filibuster Walker. It was Chili who defeated the expedition of Cristina and Flores against Ecuador, in 1846; and who, years afterwards, tore down the altar and the mask of the French Protectorate in that unfortunate country. It was Chili who sent her gold to Mexico, and her blood to Perú. It was Chili, I do not hesitate to say, with all the frankness of which I am capable, who put herself in opposition to the plans of an administration of this republic, which perhaps you have forgotten, but not forgiven yet, and which purposed to establish a spurious American protectorate over Ecuador, on condition of the cession of the Galápagos Islands for the sum of $3,000,000.
And Chili was perfectly right, because, in the opinion of the people of South America, the Monroe Doctrine does
not mean conquest without right, invasion without justice; does not mean aught but respect for nationalities which God has created, or their institutions, without any consideration whatever for those who intend to attack them, or for those who intend to protect them.
Yes, gentlemen, the Monroe Doctrine, as we understand it, is a vital and absolute principle, not a passing interest of policy. It is not a question of geography, involved in that popular quotation, America for Americans. It is not a question of frontiers and territories, by which this or that State may extend itself at the expense of another. It is, on the contrary, the foundation of international right in America; and in that I differ entirely with the eloquent orator who has preceded me, because Republican and Democratic America has a theory of her own about existence and extension, just as the monarchies of Europe have their doctrines of equilibrium and of dignities, and the foundation of that theory is the Monroe Doctrine.
This principle is not, then, simply our own, but that which its glorions founder, James Monroe, meant it to be; and that which his noble sustainer of to-day, Andrew Johnson, has clearly implied he means it to be; that is to say, that the monarchical Governments of Europe will not be permitted to interfere with republican institutions in the New World.
Gentlemen, that Power which created the strip of land which unites the two continents of America in one single world, one day inspired a great man of the North with this theory of general salvation. That day the key of the golden problem of democracy was discovered, the monarchs of Europe trembled upon their falling thrones, the freemen of the New world showed the slaves of the Old where the sacred ark ought to rest after the flood, and over the sky of a new cycle, and beyond the clouds, the hands of Washington and Bolivar clasped over the struggle of general emancipation, united the two worlds in one, to form a kingdom of eternal glory and eternal liberty.
Let that doctrine of redemption, gentlemen, be sustain ed, let it be propagated, let it be vindicated. Let your men of the government, or your men of war on the field of battle, carry out this work of redemption. Let the voice of Rome be heard once more from the dome of your high Capitol, and