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way of paying you a compliment, not that that fugitive army, shattered by the slaughter which it had itself incurred,' might hail you imperator. It decreed you a statue in the forum, a place in the senate, the highest office before the legal age. If there is anything else that can be given, it will add it. What is there greater than this that you desire to take? But if on the other hand you have had every kind of honour bestowed on you before the legal age, beyond the ordinary usage, beyond even the reach of human nature, why do you curtail the authority of the senate as though it were ungrateful, or forgetful of your good services? Is it wanton cruelty or deliberate crime on your part? Whither have we sent you? From whom are you returning? Against whom have we armed you ? On whom are you meditating war? From whom are you withdrawing an army? Against whom are you drawing out your line of battle? Why is the public enemy left untouched, and the citizen attacked as an enemy? Why in the very midst of your march is your camp pushed farther from the adversary and nearer the city ? Their hope is perforce our terror. Oh, how unwise I have always been, and what an ill-grounded reputation has mine turned out to be! How greatly, oh people of Rome, have you been deceived in me! What an old age of disaster and ruin! Oh, what a disgrace to my grey hairs, when life is all but gone and dotage has set in! - I have led the senate to its bloody doom! I have deceived the Republic! I have forced the senate to lay violent hands upon itself, when I said that luno smiled on your birth, and that your mother had brought forth a golden age !? In reality the fates were foretelling you to be the Paris of your country, destined to devastate the city with fire, Italy with war ; to pitch your camp in the temples of the immortal gods; and to hold the senate in a camp. What a miserable upsetting of the constitutionhow sudden and rapid and complicated! Who is likely to arise with a genius capable of narrating these events so as to make them seem fact and not fiction ? Who will there ever be of such quick intelligence as not to think that events which have been recorded with the most absolute truthfulness only resemble the incidents of a drama ? For think of Antony declared a public enemy; of a consul-designate, and he too a father of the state, besieged by him ; of you setting out to relieve the consul and crush the enemy; of the enemy being put to flight by you and the consul released from the siege ; and

1 Sua cæde. Perhaps it should be tua, "by the slaughter you inflicted on it."

? For Cicero's dream of a child let down from heaven by a gold chain, see Suet. Aug. 94; Dio, 45, 12; Plut, Cic. 44. This seems a confused reference to it.

then shortly afterwards of this same routed enemy invited back as your coheir to receive, after the death of the Republic, the property of the Roman people ; and of the consul-designate again surrounded where he had no walls to defend himself, but only streams and mountains. Who will attempt to give a picture of these events? Who will be bold enough to believe them? Let me be once pardoned for having made a mistake; let confession atone for an error. For I will speak frankly. Would to heaven, Antony, we had not driven you away as our despot, rather than have received this one! Not that any servitude is a thing to be wished, but because the condition of a slave is rendered less degrading by the rank of his master; while of two evils the greater is to be shunned, the less is to be chosen. He after all used to ask for what he desired to carry off, you wrench it from our hands. He sought to obtain a province when he was consul, you set your heart on one when a private citizen. He established courts and carried laws to protect the bad, you to destroy the best. He protected the Capitol from bloodshed and the incendiary fire of slaves, you wish to wipe out everything in blood and flame. If the man who granted provinces to Cassius and the Bruti, and those other guardians of the Roman name, acted as despot, what will he do who deprives them of life? If the man who ejected them from the city was a tyrant, what are we to call the man, who does not leave them even a place of exile? Therefore, if the buried ashes of our ancestors have any consciousness, if all sensation is not destroyed along with the body in one and the same fire, what will one of our people say who has most recently departed to that eternal home, when questioned as to the present fortunes of the Roman people? What kind of news will the famous men of old--the Africani, the Maximi, the Paulli, and the Scipionesreceive about their posterity? What will they hear about their country, which they adorned with spoils and triumphs? Will it be that there was a youth eighteen years old, whose grandfather was a money-changer, his father a touting witness, both in truth making a precarious livelihood, but one of them up to old age so that he could not deny it, the other from boyhood so that he could not but confess it : and that this youth was plundering the Republic? And that, too, though he had no provinces subdued and added to the empire, and no ancestral position to give him a claim to that overweening power? Though his good looks had gained him money by his shame and a noble name stained by unchastity? Though he had forced old

i Suet. Aug. 4.

? Apparently men who hang about the forum ready for a consideration to make depositions or act as formal guarantees, like the touts at Doctors' Commons described in Pickwick.

gladiators of Iulius, reduced by wounds and age the starveling remainders of Cæsar's training school—to accept the wand of dismissal, surrounded by whom he wrought general havoc, spared no one, lived for his own enjoyment, and held the Republic as his private possession, as though in marriage with a rich wife he had received it as a legacy? The two Decii will hear that those citizens are slaves, to secure whose supremacy over their enemies they devoted themselves for victory. Gaius Marius, who refused to have even a common soldier who was unchaste, will hear that we are the slaves of an immoral despot. Brutus will hear that the people, whom he first and afterwards his descendants liberated from tyrants, has been consigned to slavery as the price of shame. These reports, if by no one else, will be quickly carried down to them by myself. For as I shall be unable to escape your tyrannies while living, I have determined to fly from life and from them at the same time.

1 He seems to mean “to accept dismissal from the gladiatorial school and serve him as a bodyguard.” Cp. vol. ii., p. 251.

2 Plutarch, Marius, 14.


(The references are to volume and page)

ABDERA, in Thrace (= “ Bed- | Ælius Pætus Catus, Sext., iv. 88.
lam,” i. 302), ii. 227.

Ælius Tubero, Q., i. 73, 280, 328;
“ Academia” in Cicero's Tusculan iii. 297.
villa, i. 6, 9, 12.

Ælius, M., iv. 91, 96.
Academica, the, iii. 285, 288, 291; Ælius Lamia, L., i. 271; ii. 18;
dedicated to Varro, 304.

iii. 214-215, 223, 326; iv. 95-
Academics, the, iii. 286 ; iv. 112. 96, 285-286.
Academy at Athens, the, ii. 146, Ælius Ligur, P., ii. 9, 88; iv. II.
190; iii. 199, 274.

Æmilian tribe, i. 102.
Academy, New, iii. 293, 305, 307.

Æmilian road, iv. 212.
Acastus, a slave of Cicero's, i. Æmilius Avianius, M., ii. 158; iii.
385-386; ii. 199-202.

157, 163.
Accius, L., a poet, iii. 92, 96 ; iv. Æmilius Lepidus Livianus, Mani-
100, 105.

lius or Manius (Cos. B.C. 77),
Achaia, i. 145; iii. 29, 34, 37, i. 199; ii. 265, 273, 287.
162, 208; iv. 69, 224.

Æmilius Lepidus, M. (Cos. B.C.
Achilles, i. 230; ii. 319; iv. 236. 46), his wife, ii. 145; prætor,
Achilles, a freedman of M. Brutus, ii. 330, 336; consul, iii. 162;
iv. 255.

master of the horse to Cæsar,
Acilius Balbus, M' (Cos. B.C. iii. 318, 349; see also iii. 327;
150), iii. 272.

after Cæsar's death, iv. 5, his
Acilius Glabrio, M' (Cos. B.C. 67), inauguration as Pontifex Maxi-
i. 199; ii. 135; iii. 213.

mus, iv. 102, 151 ; his conduct
Acilius Glabrio, M', a legate of in Narbonensis and final junction

Cæsar, iii. 349-354, 358-359, 361. with Antony, iv. 183-184, 187,
Acta publica, ii. 405-406.

192, 220-223, 229, 230-231, 237-
Actium, in Acarnania, ii. 20; in 240, 257-262, 265, 268, 280-281,
Corcyra, ii. 211, 215.

283, 286, 292-293, 300, 312-315,
Acutilius, i. 2, 6, II.

Acutius, Q., i. 304.

Æmilius Paullus, L. (Cos. B.C.
Adriatic, the, ii. 374.

50), i. 122, 219, 283; ü. 43,
Æbutius, iv. 106.

83, 110, 113, 137, 168, 175 ; iii.
Æculanum, ii. 217; iv. 106.

68; iv. 12-13, 264.
Ædui (or Hædui), i. 53, 340.

Æmilius Paullus Macedonicus, L.
Ægina, iii. 210.

(Cos. B.C. 182, 166), i. 262;
Ægypta, a slave, i. 385-386 ; ii. iii. 233.
306; iii, 238, 271.

Æmilius Philemo, M., a freedman
Ælia lex, i. 43, 97.

of Lepidus, i. 353.

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