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can but place upon record two or velopment of the Principalities. Why, three salient points of his argument. then, should they seek to shake off a In reply to a common objection of light yoke, when they have so long the anti-unionists, he asks if Russia endured one that crushed them? The would find the Principalities an second point of the political proeasier prey in the form of a com- gramme voted by the divans was a pact well-organised State, containing foreign prince over the united Prin5,000,000 of free inhabitants, than in cipalities. The chiefs of the national their present mal-administered, di- party have been accused of want of vided, and ruined condition. With judgment in putting forward this respect to the rights of the Porte, the pretension, which complicates the integrity of Turkey, which it has question of the union, and renders been alleged would be infringed by its solution doubly difficult. the union of the Provinces, he in- "In the eyes of the powers that quires whether the capitulations by signed the treaty of Paris," said M. which the two Principalities are linked de Talleyrand in the presence of the to Turkey be still in force or not? author of the pamphlet, "the foreign If they be, the Sultan has no right prince is a graver matter than the to more than homage and tribute, union itself, and of a local affair you which can be paid him as well by have made a European question.” It one State as by two small ones. If appears, however, that the pressure they be not, what title has Turkey of the masses, the public feeling on to interfere at all with Moldavia and this point, was so strong, that the Wallachia? He strenuously denies chiefs of the Unionist party had that the Principalities, if fairly scarcely a choice but to yield. The treated by Turkey, would in the whole country was unanimous. Even least desire to cast off their allegi- Bibesco and Stirbey, deputies to the ance to her. “They perfectly under- Wallachian Divan, and who, it is stand," he says, "that as long as well known, have their own private there shall be a Russia and an Aus- hopes for the future, dared not optria which covet them, they must re- pose the tide, and voted for the foreign main attached to Turkey: To say prince. The feeling on the part of the contrary, is to calumniate them. the masses had its origin in the Have they not given abundant proofs abominable misgovernment of the of their fidelity to the Sultan ? With- native princes. The foreign prince, out recalling the part played by Mol- however, is not made a sine quâ non, do-Wallachia in 1828, and its energet- although those who best know the ic resistance to Greek-Russian ideas, Principalities, believe that the apit cannot have been forgotten that pointment of a native would greatly in 1854, when Omar Pasha entered impair the chances of stability of the Bucharest, addresses, in which the new order of things. Wallachians asked to march against “I will not conclude without addthe Russians, were covered, in two ing, that the Principalities reckon, days, with innumerable signatures, at this moment, more than twenty and were rejected by the Allies. Dur- earnest pretenders to the supreme ing the campaign on the Danube, the power, and that sixteen of these, at Wallachian soldiers, whom their chief least, depend upon foreign governhad basely delivered to the Russians, ments, to which they have promised deserted by hundreds, and went over a large share of influence in the affairs to the Turks. It is true that the of the country. To win the favour latter, as generous enemies, contented of the powers that dispose of the fate themselves with disarming them, and of Moldo-Wallachia, there is no sending them to their homes, where guilty engagement that this throng they were seized and shot by order of candidates has not beforehand of the Muscovite generals.
taken. The most skilful are those The suzeraineté of Turkey, this who promise the same thing to two, author observes, restored to its true and even to three different cabinets. nature, and circumscribed in the terms
Would you know their titles of the capitulation, will in no way to the productive honour they seek ? impede the moral and material de These are, an ill-acquired fortune, a deplorable reputation, and the good favourable disposition towards the graces of some consul or member of proposed union, seemed, according the Commission. Who will be your to what he (Cavour) learned from prince?' it was lately asked of a Sir James Hudson, to have changed Wallachian. 'He who shall have the his mind, and to be disposed to largest amount of money and vices to espouse the views of the Porte. place at the disposal of the foreigner,' He considers that this modification was the immediate reply. Where is of opinion may have the most to be sought a remedy for all these serious and grievous consequences, rivalries, hatreds, and scandals, un- and he desires to convince the Engless it be in a prince who has always lish Cabinet of the fallacy of the arlived far away from them, who has guments advanced by the Porte. He no engagement with our parties and then proceeds to examine the quesour corrupters—in a man educated tion of the union under two points to reign ; and who, on arriving at of view—that of the interests of the supreme power, should not offer the Principalities themselves, and that of spectacle and the example of the vices the interests of Turkey. Without and follies of a parvenu ?”.
giving an analysis of the whole deIt is evident that the Roumans spatch, which is of considerable would have no confidence in a prince leng we will cite some of its princhosen from amongst themselves; cipal and most striking points. they fear lest the old game should bé Count Cavour remarks that the deplayed again, lest gold and foreign sire of union in the two Principalities influence should again impose upon is of no recent growth; that for long them, this time for life, some Stirbey past they have lost no opportunity or Stourza, some Bibesco or Alexan- of testifying it; and that Turkey herder Ghica, from whom they could self, when endowing Moldo-Wallarid themselves only by a revolution. chia twenty-five years ago with the Their choice, were they allowed to Organic Regulations, recognised the make it, would probably fall upon a principle, in Article 425, in the folprince of the house of Savoy. But lowing terms : "The origin, the rewhat would Austria, and Austria's ligion, the manners, and the common friends, say to that? And since we language of the inhabitants of the have referred to the royal family of two Principalities, as well as their Sardinia, we will say a few words of common wants, are sufficient elements a document, very favourable to Rou- of a closer union, which hitherto has man aspirations, and proceeding from been prevented and delayed only by a source that will be universally ad- circumstances; but the advantages mitted to be entitled to high consi- that will arise from the union of the deration. We speak of a despatch two populations cannot be put in which first obtained publicity a few doubt. Thus, the commencement of days ago in a foreign newspaper that union is established in this a despatch addressed by Count Ca- Règlement by an administrative conmillo Cavour, on the 4th Septem- formity in the government of the two ber 1856, to the Sardinian chargé- countries.” This is clear enough ; d'affaires in London, to be by him but Turkey would perhaps explain communicated to Lord Clarendon. its discordance with her present In it the distinguished Piedmontese policy by recalling the fact that the statesman strongly advocates the Règlement was drawn up by Russian union of the Principalities, and ad- hands, and promulgated during a vances, in support of the project, ar- Russian occupation.“ Austria,” says guments, of which some, it must be Count Cavour, " has long had her admitted, are both novel and forcible. eyes turned in the direction of the Referring first to the opposition of Lower Danube. Let it be rememTurkey to that project, he remarks bered that she has already contrived that the English Secretary of State to render herself mistress of three for Foreign Affairs, who, in the bosom millions of Roumans inhabiting Tranof the Paris Conference, had shown a sylvania, the Banat, and Bukovina. Is
* The Indépendance Belge of the 22d May 1858.
it credible that two little states, Epirus, of Albania, of the islands of rendered more feeble by separation, the Archipelago, will always desire will be able to resist the ambitious to form part of the Greek kingdom; and encroaching policy of Austria ? as, upon the other hand, that kingThe influence of the
Vienna Cabinet dom will always be animated by an will produce in the Principalities, at irresistible desire to absorb the eleBucharest especially, effects analo-ments that are homogeneous with gous to that which we see produced it, and that have remained under in the secondary states of Italy. the sceptre of the Sultan. Separation can but aggravate the “The Principalities, on the constate of the Principalities, by causing trary, constitute a race apart, which a profound irritation, and wounding has pushed offshoots into no proalf the instincts of the population. vince, but which, at the same time, It will render necessary a despotic has not suffered itself to be absorbed and violent government, which, to by the powerful races that surround maintain itself, will be obliged con- it. The Turks have not established tinually to have recourse to the in- themselves as conquerors amongst tervention of Turkish, and even of the descendants of Trajan's soldiers. Austrian forces.” Viewing the ques. No mosque rears its head on Roution under the second aspect-the man soil. Any attempt at assimilainterests of Turkey–Count Cavour, tion between the Roumans and the whilst admitting that these ought to Turks, the Greeks and the Slavobe seriously considered by Europe, nians, would be fruitless. We have believes that the Porte perhaps these four populations belonging to exaggerates to itself its rights over four races entirely distinct by essenMoldo-Wallachia, which are strictly tially diverse ethnographic characters. limited to a suzeraineté. He denies The Porte, then, has no reason to that the union would be in any re- fear that the Roumans will seek to spect prejudicial_to the just rights combine with the Servians and Buland interests of Turkey. With refer- garians. There is less sympathy beence to a comparison, instituted in tween the Rouman and the Slavothe circular of the Turkish Minister nian than between the Rouman and of Foreign Affairs, between the Prin- the Turk. On the other hand, the cipalities and the kingdom of Greece, Roumans form an obstacle to the he expresses himself as follows, for- tendencies to draw together (rapcibly and eloquently :
prochement) which animate the dif“The terms of the parallel are not ferent branches of the great Slavoidentical. An essential difference nian family. Rouman nationality exists between the two countries. is a counterpoise useful to Turkey, Greece can never forget the glorious useful to Europe, and inimical to the times of Athens, of Sparta, of Thebes, dangerous development of Panslavoas she also will ever bear in mind nianism. If we look at the map, we the Empire of the East, and the see that the Slavonian race extends magnificent residence of the Palæ- from the Uralian mountains and the ologi and the Patriarchs. Greece is northern seas to the Adriatic, witheverywhere side by side with Turkey out other interruption than the terin Europe ; everywhere, hard by the ritories occupied by the Roumans. mosque, the church of Christ arises. If, as is incontestable, PanslavonianBy constituting the kingdom of ism is a danger, not only for Turkey, Greece, a centre was created for but for the whole of the West, is it Greek nationality, whilst at the same not of the highest interest to constitime there was left all around the tute, in the centre of the Slavonian majority of the Hellenic race under countries, a nationality which symthe domination of Turkey. From pathises exclusively with the West, this there naturally resulted an and which may form a real obstacle irresistible tendency, on the part of to the reunion of populations having those populations, to unite themselves so great a tendency to form a unity with their emancipated brethren. that would perhaps crush the rest of It is in vain to struggle against the the civilised world ?” force of things. The Hellenes of Count Cavour proceeds to argue
VOL. LXXXIV.—NO, DXIII,
that the constitution of the Rouman Before laying down our pen we natiouality would be useful, not men- will give a few lines to the European acing, to Turkey. Antipathy of race Commission in the Principalities, will always keep the Roumans aloof touched upon in the sixth chapter from Russia. Their detestation of of the pamphlet before us, where the Austria is well known. To that character, attitude, and line of conpower they might at some future day duct of each one of the Commisbe dangerous, should they aspire to sioners are sketched, not, as regards regain the Rouman districts which most of them, in very favourable form part of its empire. “The foreign colours. The subject tempts to sacourts, rivals of Turkey, will be for- tirical delineation, but the present midable in the Principalities only so writer has not thought proper to avail long as they shall have to do with himself of it to anything like the full feeble governments, in antagonism extent which his turn for sarcasm with the national spirit, forced by would certainly have_rendered it their false position to seek support, easy for him to do. The Commismoral or material, financial or mili- sioners found in the Principalities tary, from those of their neighbours the warmest and most hospitable who possess such vast means of cor- reception. If, politically, some of ruption and influence. The men, them were looked upon with far accustomed to make a traffic of the greater favour than others (whose favours of the Porte, may lose some- governments were known, or believed what of their illicit gains by the con- to be, unfavourable to the wishes of stitution of a single and strong power the Moldo-Wallachians), personally in the Principalities. The Porte can all were treated alike. The friends but gain by it.” The Sardinian min- were welcomed as friends; the eneister concludes with a general con- mies were received as if their hosts sideration. “ If,” he says, “as we were in hopes of converting them are assured, and as, notwithstanding into friends. The French Commisthe denials of Turkey, everything sioner-thanks to the attitude of induces us to believe, the union is France at that time with regard to the ardent wish of the Principalities, the question of the union-- was the can the Western Powers reject it í favourite and preponderant, and Can they incur, in the eyes of the might, says the author of the “Letcivilised world and of history, the ters," have made himself master of responsibility of having sacrificed the the situation. The Sardinian, as real interests, the legitimate aspira- an Italian, and as representative of tions, of five millions of Christians, the chivalrous and popular Victor to the exaggerated scruples and un- Emmanuel, received many marks
of founded fears of the Turkish cabinet ?" warm sympathy. The Russian, Ba
We need not remind the reader sili, was a Greek, and therefore, althat Piedmont has, from the time though representing a power most the question was first raised, shown favourable to the union (and also on herself a stanch supporter of Rou- account of a pedantic and unpleasing man demands. This is not surpris- manner), he was neither liked nor ing. The champion of Italian na- trusted." “ Timeo Danaos et dona tionality, she is an ex officio partisan ferentes is a maxim which the Fanaof that of Roumania. Besides the riots passed a century in engraving hatred towards Austria, which in- on the hearts of the Roumans." Of fluences all her foreign policy, lead- the English Commissioner this writer ing her always to adopt that view of speaks in the highest terms as an a question which may be damaging amiable and accomplished gentleor disagreeable to that power, she, man; but he entirely disapproves as the representative and hope of the line of conduct which, as a diploItalian independence, naturally sym- matist and politician, he followed pathises with a kindred race, eagerly in the Principalities. Of the Ausseeking, in the far east of Europe, à trian and the Turkish he does not portion of that liberty which she in tell us much, except, in a note, an the west has already won, and, we anecdote of the former, M. Lehman trust, for ever secured.
de Palmrod, which, whether true or not, é ben trovato. “On the point pasts of the Commission during the of being ennobled, M. Lehman had first three weeks of its stay in Buchato make choice of a more aristocratic rest. In twenty-six days, the table name. After long reflection, this of a single commissioner cost upwards diplomatist borrowed from Lord Pal- of £300. Of wax lights, 200 lb. per merston the first syllable of his name, night were charged for. There was and from M. de Nesselrode the last an item of 117,000 francs for small of his, and, soldering them together, expenses, such as lights, cabs, lamps, made himself a name of favourable kitchen utensils, &c. At the time of augury. I cannot venture to affirm the installation of Ghica as caimacan, that these ambitious syllables have in 1856, the Turkish envoy, Kiamií kept all the promise they contained.” Bey, sent to invest him with the digIf the pamphlet is chary of details nity, passed a week at Bucharest, and about the Commission, we find, in of course was kept at free quarters, a newspaper* published at Brussels, as a guest. The honest people charged and exclusively devoted to the affairs with purveying for him, found means of the Principalities, some curious to make him consume strawberries gossip on the subject. This is con- to the value of 7000 Wallachian tained in a letter from Bucharest, piastres (nearly £100)! But Saafetwhich, when it returned in print to Effendi, the Turkish commissioner in that capital, made a great sensation 1857, had no reason to be jealous of there by reason of the boldness and the delicacies supplied to his countryaccuracy of its statements. The
In the accounts of the comCommission was an enormous ex- mission figures an item of 1200 francs pense to the Principalities. It was for “ perfumes for the use of Saafetdeemed proper to provide its mem- Effendi.” The Turk must have needbers and their suites with houses, ed a deal of sweetening. The Walalso with carriages and horses, and, lachians, making a variation on a in the first instance, with food, lights, well-known proverb, said that “a and everything they required. The European commission is equal to houses were hired by the government half a military occupation. The at exorbitant rents, and were richly people of the Principalities, accusfurnished at the cost of the country. tomed to be robbed by their rulers, Everything was supplied in the most and by officials and contractors of all lavish and prodigal manner. Blame kinds, would think little of the cost is not cast on the Commissioners; of the Commission, if they thought it was quite natural that, on their there was a chance of its labours and first arrival in a strange capital, report leading Europe to comply with where the hotels are not of the best, their wishes. But of this they now and to whose ways they were unac- have little hope. “ The international customed, they should accept a tem- Commission," says the author of the porary hospitality, which, moreover, “ Letters," cost the Principalities was warmly pressed upon them. 3 millions of piastres (about £45,000 After a short time, most of them de- sterling); that is to say, the tenth clined to be any longer a burthen on part of their annual budget. The the country, and retained only the Roumans love to cherish the hope quarters that had been prepared for that the result of its labours will be them. Not all, however, were equally proportionate to this total, or, in considerate ; but the chief origin of popular terms, that it will give them the expensé incurred was the im- their money's worth !” mense amount of jobbery and robbery We must conclude; not, however, connected with the supplies furnished without extracting the last page of to them. Some of the items quoted the pamphlet, which embodies the in the Etoile du Danube are curious, author's views as to what may not by reason of their barefaced extra- improbably be the result of treating vagance. The best and dearest hotel with neglect, if not with contempt, in Europe would have supplied its the almost unanimously expressed best dinners at an infinitely lower wishes of the Moldo-Wallachians. rate than that set down for the re- “Our best policy now," he says,
* L'Etoile du Danube, of Saturday, 25th July 1857.