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interpretation of American history as presented in the foregoing outline. The books named below will be found to contain material adaptable to classroom use. By consulting the topical indexes it is possible to locate the topics desired.

Beard and Bagley: "A First Book in American History" (Inter.). Beard and Bagley: "The History of the American People" (Advanced).

Mace: "School History of the United States."

Gordy: "The History of the United States."

Howard and Brown: "The United States, Its History, Government, and Institutions."

For study by the teachers, the following texts are suggested:

Hart: "New American History."

McLaughlin: "History of the American Nation."

Elson: "United States, Its Past and Present."

Halleck: "History of Our Country."

West and West: "The Story of Our Country."


Moley and Cook: "Lessons in Democracy."

Gordy: "Stories of Later American History."

Eggleston: "A First Book in American History."

Baldwin: "Four Great Americans."

Eggleston: "Stories of American Life and Adventure.”
Baldwin: "The Story of Liberty."



"Freedom exists only where the people take care
-Woodrow Wilson.

of the government."

Various Approaches That Have Been Made to the Study of Government. The writing of text-books on government has been approached in a number of different ways, depending upon the viewpoint that the author holds on government and its meaning. The oldest group are those who see government entirely from the legal or formal side. To them government is an established machine and human beings are virtually automatons moving about under the control of the machine. If the individual learns the rules and regulations, he will, according to this idea, become a good and loyal citizen. The authors who reacted to this conception stressed the sociological character of government. They went to such an extreme in emphasizing the social work of a community that they neglected those concrete political and administrative processes by which the social work of a public character are performed. In other words, they failed to see how powers vested in the various departments of government are important in carrying out social work.

Another group of authors are making the mistake of emphasizing community civics in such a way that the student does not see the influences that react from the outside upon the community. After all, there is no institution outside of the garbage wagon that is purely local in character. All essentials to community life in the way

of food, clothing, and shelter are not determined by community action, but are the concern of the State and the nation.

Most writers ignore the position of modern woman in the family, in industry, before the law, and in the intellectual life. Civics must concern itself with the whole community, not merely with the masculine half.

The study of government is not a simple matter; on the other hand, it is not a mystery, for at the foundation of government is the desire and need of the individual for justice, equality, and protection. Government is an agent to serve the community. Government is not static, but dynamic; it is a process, evolving to meet the needs of the times. It is not essential to try to prove to the immigrant student that ours is the best government in the world, but it is essential to present clearly what the character of our government is, what the problems are, and whether or not we have the best government which it is possible for us to establish and maintain.

The Approach for the Adult Student.-How to approach the study of government for the adult immigrant student is a question that needs careful thought. There are many difficulties in the way. Chief among them are those of language and brevity of time spent in the schoolroom. Unless great pains are taken by the teacher to simplify and plan, the students may be lost before the great principles of government have been presented to them. To instruct in great detail regarding political organization and social work, may result in giving only a smattering of facts that contribute nothing toward giving a clear conception of the true purposes and services of government. Some believe that to begin with the local government is bound to make the teaching of civics sim

pler. This is undoubtedly an illusion-the concreteness is imaginary rather than real. The federal post-office is as concrete as the town hall, and the ways of Congress are not more mysterious than the intricate methods of local elections. Some civics start with a study of the family-making it analogous to the study of government. It will be realized how erroneous is such a plan when we stop to think how complex and varied is the ancient institution of the family.

Perhaps a truer approach would be through the individual and his need for food, clothing, and shelter. The way in which these necessities are obtained determine the nature of government. This can readily be seen by comparing primitive man, who lived and worked alone for his livelihood, with modern man, who works with others to satisfy his needs, and consequently has more numerous and varied needs. Thus people living in the cities require many more services, such as water-works, gasplants, street lighting, tenement inspection, sewers, and collection of wastes, and many others which people living in the country or more isolated places do not need at all. One could go on and give many illustrations, such as the disposal of government lands, regulations of railway rates, the tariff, labor laws, forest conservation, dairy inspection, and, in fact, all the matters that actually bring our struggle to obtain food, clothing, and shelter into contact with government.

The following outline is presented with the hope that it may serve as a guide to teachers of adult foreign-born students or to teachers of any adults who find it necessary to study government. Wherever possible, concrete illustration should be given of the point in question. The language should be as elementary as possible. The speech

of every-day life will be found most comprehensible. Arrange definite questions on each lesson and encourage free discussion. It should always be borne in mind that the immigrant student has already had some experience with government, and that he is in a position to compare and contrast. Methods employed in teaching government to children are therefore out of place. Nor can the teaching of formulas assist the student to understand the meaning of free government.


I. The meaning of free government in the United States.

1. Working alone man needs no government. Only a Robinson Crusoe can live without a government.

2. Working together people cannot do all things for themselves. They are dependent upon one another for liberty, health, safety, and the necessaries of life.

3. People need government because they are dependent upon one another.

4. A government helps eacn person to do the things he cannot do for himself.

5. In a free government people co-operate for the common good. Give an illustration.

6. A free government is a democracy in which the people have a voice in the affairs of the country.

7. The United States is a democracy in a republic. Republic is the name of the form of our government; democracy means that the people have a voice in the government. Give illustrations.

II. The foundation of free government in the United States.

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