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1. The Constitution of the United States, why formed and when.
2. Unity and power for the central government secured by four great powers given to the federal government: to lay and collect taxes, to create and support an army and navy, to regulate foreign and domestic commerce, and to do all things necessary to carry out the powers given by the Constitution.
III. The machinery of government: officers, elections, and parties.
1. The federal character of the government in the United States. Compare with France.
2. The national government: legislative, executive, and judicial.
3. The State government.
4. The government of cities. Three types of city government in the United States: council-mayor, commission, and manager.
5. Government in the country districts.
6. Political parties.
7. Representative government and democracy. Growth of direct democracy through initiative, referendum and recall, the direct primary.
IV. The services of the government.
1. The division of work between the federal and State government.
2. The services of the departments of the federal government.
3. Other agencies of the federal government.
4. The services of the State government.
5. The services of local governments.
V. Law and the courts.
1. The kinds of law:
2. Civil and criminal procedure.
3. Federal courts.
4. State courts.
VI. Financing the government.
1. A study on taxes.
VII. How to become a citizen of the United States.
HELPS FOR TEACHERS
"Thirty Lessons in Naturalization and Citizenship." An Outline for Teachers of Adult Immigrants. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, State House, Boston, Mass.
"Brief Reading List on Government and Politics." Published by the National League of Women Voters.
"Parties, Politics, and People," by Raymond Moley. Published by the National League of Women Voters.
"Government," by Charles Beard.
FOR CLASSROOM USE
Jane Eayre Fryer: "Our Town and Civic Duty."
Jane Eayre Fryer: "Community Interest and Public Spirit."
Moley and Cook: "Lessons in Democracy.”
Plass: Civics for Americans in the Making."
THE TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY
The Old Geography and the New Geography.-Geography is the study of the relations of mankind to nature's resources. Mankind needs food, clothing, and shelter. The older geography failed to show the relations of people to nature, and stopped short at describing the world, teaching many isolated facts and showing locations. The modern world differs from the primitive world in that modern man has learned how to make the forces of nature serve him better, how to increase the production of desirable plants and animals, how to extract minerals from the earth, how to minimize the ravages of disease, and how to refashion and redistribute the resources of the earth according to his varying needs and wants. He has also learned his dependence upon nature and how nature has stimulated advancement. Scientific research and inventions have more often than otherwise been the result of necessity. People living in the temperate zones have been able to progress further than people living in extreme climates. The movements of people are and have been guided by the desire to find suitable locations, both from climatic and economic standpoints.
To live adequately in the modern world, it is therefore necessary to have useful knowledge and information about peoples, countries, cities, industries, achievements, and the principal reasons why these things are as they are.
Importance of Teaching Geography to the Adult Immigrant. When the adult immigrant comes to us, he finds himself suddenly transplanted from one geographical situation to another, in some respects more complicated or more highly evolved, and in others perhaps not so highly evolved. Or it may be simply different. Many immigrants come from the small town or village community of some European country, where modern scientific developments have not found their way to the masses. On the other hand, their mode of industry has encouraged individuality and a high quality of handwork which often excels machine-made things. The climate and the food may differ radically from the climate and the food in this country. For example, the Greeks and the Southern Italians come from extremely hot climates; they are accustomed to wines, and a diet made up of foods peculiar to their countries. To respond properly to the new environment, these people must obtain sufficient knowledge to make adequate adjustments in regard to food and clothing. Then there are advantages and opportunities in the new land. To partake of and to enjoy them, and in turn to feel the added civic responsibilities that should come with opportunity, the immigrant needs much useful information about the resources of the city and the country, about industries and industrial problems, the growth of population and the causes of its movements, the subdivision of labor, with its advantages and disadvantages, the development of agriculture, and a host of other things that vitally touch the lives of the self-supporting newcomers to the United States.
The Aims of Teaching Geography. The study of geography in the school for the adult foreign-born will thus
be seen to be of utmost importance. The teacher of the immigrant should have constantly in mind certain definite geographical aims which may be listed as follows:
1. To give practical knowledge of the new environ
2. To assist readjustment: physiographic, economic, social, and political.
3. To give knowledge of resources and industries of the United States.
4. To teach the need for conservation of resources and energy.
5. To give general occupational information which is a necessary asset to intelligent public opinion.
6. To show interdependence of people and industries, in order that the student may appreciate civic life. 7. To give knowledge of American peoples with adequate interpretation.
8. To teach the student to find reliable information in regard to the United States, and to arouse him to ask questions in regard to the United States.
9. And finally to develop an appreciation of the importance of the United States intrinsically, and to show its relational aspect to the world as a whole.
The following outline is offered as a tentative course of study to guide teachers in shaping lessons in geography for intermediate and advanced students. The subject should be detailed in such a way that it will make a strong appeal to the practical needs of the students. Here again the subject must be abbreviated, and it is therefore important that only such material be presented which is certain to be of practical value to the student. The geography material in the outline is arranged under