(g) Map showing deposits of coal and iron. (i) Map showing the leading manufacturing districts. 9. Maps showing railroads, navigable waters of the United States, and locations of natural water-power. 10. Population maps of the United States. 11. Map showing standard time belts in the United States. II. Pictures. 1. Basic industries of the United States and other industries. 2. Leading cities of the United States. 3. Natural scenery in the United States, national parks, and waterfalls. 4. Pictures of buildings in Washington, D. C. 5. Pictures of herding, mining, farming, and fishing in the various parts of the United States. III. Field trips. 1. Public buildings. 2. Libraries. 3. Banks. As with the teaching of history, it is impossible to find a text which is altogether satisfactory for classroom work in geography. The texts written for the day school are not concise enough because of the adult's limited time for schooling. The teacher should glean from a number of sources the material necessary to teach the points set forth in the preceding outline. The texts here named will furnish sources from which the teacher may draw such material. Tarr and McMurry: "New Geographies-First Book." SUPPLEMENTARY BOOKS IN GEOGRAPHY FOR THE STUDENT Chamberlain: "How We Are Fed." Chamberlain: "How We Are Clothed." Chase and Clow: "Stories of Industry," Vols. I and II. Carroll: "Around the World,” Book IV. Fisher: "Resources and Industries of the United States." Allen: "North America." Allen: "The United States. REFERENCES FOR TEACHERS Huntington and Cushing: "Principles of Human Geography." Brannom: "Teaching of Geography." CHAPTER XV THE TEACHING OF ARITHMETIC Learning Arithmetic by Solving Problems. In order to teach arithmetic efficiently and effectively in any classroom it is necessary to understand the pedagogy underlying this science. In teaching arithmetic to adults, the aim of the teacher should be that of economy of time because of the brief period which the adult student can give to it. He must be taught the application of his knowledge to the real needs that arise in his every-day life. The adult is ready for applications of numbers which are far beyond the needs, interests, and experiences of the child who is learning arithmetic. We should not, in adult classes, force facts and processes in arithmetic unrelated to the needs which their daily activities create. It must be remembered that arithmetic is, after all, learned by solving problems. The mere memorizing of formulas does not give the student power to perform the operations so indicated. To gain the ability to solve problems, the student must himself perform the operations indicated. The following books will render the teacher valuable assistance in acquiring the pedagogy of arithmetic: Stone, John C.: "Teaching of Arithmetic. Thorndike, Edward Lee: "New Methods in Arithmetic." Moore, Ernest C.: "Minimum Course of Study," Chap. I. References for special types of arithmetic or vocational arithmetic which include practical problems, suggesting the types of problems needed for adult classes are as follows: Dooley, William H.: "Vocational Mathematics." Finney and Brown: "Modern Business Arithmetic." Classification of Adult Students of Arithmetic.-Experience in organizing arithmetic classes for the adult has shown certain difficulties. The mathematical background of adult immigrant students varies from those who have had no formal instruction at all to those who are highly educated along scientific lines. Hence, the instruction réquired in adult classes will range from those who need to learn the first steps of the four fundamental processes -addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division— to the highly educated individual who needs only the mathematical terminology of the new language. For this reason the only time-saving procedure in instruction for the adult in arithmetic is to make the subject a member of the departmental group of subjects. Consequently, those students who desire and need arithmetic will have the opportunity to study it without waste of time. On the other hand, those who have no need for it will not be compelled to sit through instruction not pertinent to their needs. CHAPTER XVI TEACHING THE ADULT ILLITERATE TO READ AND WRITE It is better to be unborn than untaught: for ignorance is the root of misfortune.-Plato. Illiteracy in the United States.-Illiteracy, as defined by the Census Bureau, signifies inability to write in any language, not necessarily English, regardless of ability to read. It should be noted that ability to read or write cannot be defined so precisely as to cover all cases with certainty. A person may know the alphabet and a small number of printed words, but may be unable to read in any true sense; or he may be able to write his name but be wholly unable to express his thoughts in writing in an intelligible manner. There is undoubtedly a margin of error in the statistics of illiteracy, resulting from a variety of causes. In some cases there may be unwillingness to admit illiteracy on the part of the persons enumerated. Furthermore, in parts of the country where practically all native white persons are literate, the enumerators are likely to acquire the habit of returning them as such without the formality of an inquiry, and in this way a few isolated cases of illiteracy may be overlooked. On the other hand, in the case of negroes, the opposite assumption may sometimes be made by white enumerators, while in the case of the foreign-born, inability to write in English may sometimes be taken as constituting illiteracy, although the instruc |