Page images

-This is my body. The found of bæreticum devita, in a Latin version of Tit. iii. 10. has authorized the most barbarous murders of thousands, who have been burned alive by the inquisition, under the denomination of beretics. It has been made to signify hæreticum de vita-an beretic from life; that is put him from life-kill him.-Thus, by separating the word devita, and turning the last two syllables into the substantive vita, the preposition de just answered the purpose. A lefs tragical consequence of this method of interpretation is related by Erasmus. He tells of a friar preaching from those words of CHRIST, Luke xvii. 17. which stand in some Latin versions-Nonne decem facti funt * mundi —who began to prove there are ten worlds. An arch fellow standing by, stopped his mouth with the following words-Sed ubi funt novem ?--But where are the nine ?

It is said of St. Francis, that from the words, Go you into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature, he thought himself bound to preach to beasts and birds, and accordingly did it very often, and with wonderful success, as they tell us in the legend of his life. Perhaps it was much on a like principle that St. Anthony of Padua went and preached to the fishes whose discourse to them

may be found in Broughton Hift. Lib.

yol. i. p. 53

* I would just acquaint the unlearned reader, that the substantive mundus signifies a world--the adjective mun dus fignifies clean. Vol. I,



Dr. Hammond, in his note on 1 Tim. iii. 2. says-" What is the meaning of piãs yuvanès

avino--the husband of one wife-both here " and ver. 12, and Tit. i. 6. and of švòs dve Spòs yuri-the wife of one husband_chap.

v. 9. will not easily be resolved.” But surely all difficulty vanishes, when the whole is taken together; and it is observed from the original in what different tenses the verbs yavopics and črps are used. This thews that the apoftle, 1 Tim. iii. 2, and Tit. i. 6. was defcribing the situation of the men he was then speaking of, as what it then was—and in i Tim. v. 9. that of the widows, as to what it had been. 1 Tim. iii. 2. AĒL By Tòv 'Eloxo70V’EINAI pesãs yoraines 'Avdam A Bishop ought to Be (not to HAVE BEEN) the husband of one wife; and Tit. i. 6. 'EI TIS EET IN Nãs yuvasnos-if any Be (18) the husband of one wife. *Es w being of the present tense, can signify only what a man is at the time spoken of: whereas the expression concerning the women, 1 Tim. v. 9. is widely different. The woman is called Xnpo, a widow; and it is observable, that the verb is not expressed as before, either in the infinitive or indicative mood of "Expli, to be, but by the participle of the præteritum, or past time, of the verb yivoMall, to be or become. It is yeyovū.a--which we have rightly rendered-having been—that is in time past having been, or become the wife of one man-a widow, who never had been but once married; not-that had not had twa husbands at a time; such a thing was hardly



ever heard of, as lawful, even amongst the heathens * themselves. I would therefore harmonize and paraphrase the whole as follows:--" Forasmuch as all things are to be done decently and in order; (1 Cor. xiv. 40.) to but this cannot be, unless some proper “ form of government be established; it is

necessary that proper officers be appointed "' to adminifter that government. Some who

are to be-'ETICHOTO-overseers of the “ whole; others Aldrovos deacons, or infe“ rior serving ministers under them. The “ first order of men are to overlook the clergy,

as well as the laity—to preach the word “ administer the sacraments, and to have

power to censure evil doers, even as far as

excommunication, the church agreeing thereto. i Cor. v. 4, 5. Such an office should, “ doubtless, be filled with men of irre

proachable characters, and of such con“ duct and dispositions as to be in all respects

blameless, not only for the better maintenance of their authority, but also for the


* Never among Jews, or even Turks, was it permitted that the woman should have more than one husband at

Only among the barbarians there is mention of the loavardpoi, a people fo called, because the wife among them had many husbands. So among the Medes, that dwelt in the mountains, it is said a woman was married to five husbands at once. See Hammond on I Tim. 111. 2. Montesquieu mentions the tribe of the Naires, on the coast of Malabar, where the women have many husbands. Sp. of Laws, vol. i. p: 374, octavo. But all this is as contrary to nature itself, as the custom of some of the Indian women's drowning their children in the Ganges, or exposing them to wild beasts to be devoured.


66 influence

“ influence of their example. As such as • office must moreover require great atten• tion, those should be chusen, who are en

tangled as little as possible in the affairs of " this life. 2 Tim. ii. 4. Therefore, though “ for this reason forgle men might in general “ answer the purpose best, (1 Cor. vii. 33.) yet it

may be expedient, in some instances, “ to chuse married men into the offices of

Bishops and Deacons. Where this is the “ case, the election should not be made of

ch of the Christians as have more than one wife, as such a situation muft necessa“ rily involve the person in more worldly

care, than can be consistent with a due at. “ tention to that care, which must come upon them daily, respecting the church. Therefore, the having more than one wife fhould always

be considered as a bar to a man's ^ election, either to the office of a Bishop or of

a Deacon, (I Tim. iii. 12.); for though these “ last may not have so extensive a jurisdiction,

yet, what with preaching the word-affist

ing the Bishops and elders-visiting the “ tick-and distributing the church's alms to “ the poor--one wife and family is as much

as can be at all considered consistent with any tolerable diligence in the duties of a Deacon's office.

“ But as the fick are to be visited and attended, as well as the poor relieved, it “ may be necessary also to appoint women for “ these purposes, especially as to attending si and nursing the poor of their own fex. 5

$ These



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

6. These may require many offices highly

improper for men to be engaged " though the nursing fick men, or visiting and relieving them, may very properly fall also * under the care of women,

These women may allo be called Διάκονοι της εκκλησίας (fee Rom. xvi. 1.) servants or ministers of the is church. Those who are to be deemed

proper for these offices, must not be

young, raw, unexperienced girls ; nor married women, whose attention belongs to rs their husbands and families; i Cor. vii.

34; nor the younger widows, who are not arrived « at a time of life suitable to such employ

ments, i Tim. v. II: let these marry, to “ keep themselves out of mischief, ver. 12,

13; 14. The only women who are fit to " be chosen as fervants or ministers of the s church in the respects above mentioned, « should be far advanced in years ; that is to * say, not less than threescore years old, who

having buried their husbands and brought up

their children, 1 Tim. v. 10. have time, as well as inclination, to devote themselves

to the offices of the church. They should to also be sober and discreet persons, who, by to their conduct in their younger years, have ** Thewn their temperance and sobriety, by t having contented themselves with one huf* band, and who, ever after the death of that husband, have secluded themselves from

any further worldly engagements of that “ sort, so as to be justly styled widows indeed ; though defolate, yet trusting in God (1 Tim. 03

v. 5.)

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »