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few upon whom a loving manner has more influence. Vulgar Europeans, men of small mental calibre, often treat the natives of India as if they were the dirt beneath their feet, and stalk about like bhudevas, gods on earth. Though most offensive in such persons, it must be admitted that more or less of the same dispositions prevails to a large extent. Bishop Heber says that most of the French in India free from that exclusive and intolerant spirit which makes the English, wherever they go, a caste by themselves, disliking and disliked by all their neighbours. Of this foolish, surly, national pride, I see but too many instances daily, and I am convinced it does us much harm in this country. We are not guilty of injustice or wilful oppression; but we shut out the natives from our society, and a bullying, insolent manner is continually assumed in speaking to them."* It is instructive to mark, on the other hand, how kind and considerate true noblemen were, like the Marquis of Hastings, or men of talent, like Sir Thomas Munro or Sir John Malcolm. The natives remarked of one of the greatest and most heroic Englishmen that ever landed in India, that he would return the salute even of a child.
The Hindus should not be regarded with contempt; they do not deserve it. The Hindu mind differs from ours; but it will be despised only by the ignorant man, incapable of forming a correct judgment. Mr. S. Laing, after referring to the Ramayana, the grammar of Panini, and the Ayin Akbari, observes,
“ Instances like these confirm what the science of language demonstrates, the substantial identity of intellect of all branches of the Arian family. Yesterday the Greek, to-day the AngloSaxon, to-morrow it
be the Russian or the Hindu, who leads the van of Arian nations; and whoever is foremost of Arians, is foremost of the world.”
* Indian Journal, Vol. II. p. 11.
While want of kindness is reprehensible in any European, it is a fatal defect in a Missionary. But any thing merely negative will not do,--there must be the warm out-going of affection. It is true, as has been observed, that this cannot be the simple love of approbation or complacency. A Missionary cannot be blind to the defects in the character of the people of India. His love, to a large extent, must be the love of compassion. It should resemble, in some faint degree, that of Him who wept over Jerusalem, or of Paul who could wish himself accursed from Christ for his brethren, his kinsmen according to the flesh. The true Missionary will give the people credit for whatever good qualities they possess, and remembering his own grievous sins against so much light and love, he will make allowances for those who have from their birth been exposed to so many adverse influences. This, however, will not prevent him from reproving and rebuking as occasion demands. But this will be well borne where there is genuine love in the heart.
The most successful Missionaries have been distinguished for their love of the people among whom they laboured. The biographer of Swartz says :
Among the qualities which tended materially to accredit and recommend him as a Missionary, was that sweetness of disposition, and that cordiality and kindness of address, which, springing out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith unfeigned,' shed an aspect of benignity and cheerfulness over his countenance, and added a charm to his very appearance, and persuasion to his lips. He was at peace with God, and his heart was habitually animated by that love to Him, which irresistibly expanded in love to his brethren also."
Anderson of Madras wrote, “I love these poor Hindus the longer I live among them, and the more I know about them.” Referring to some of his pupils he said, “ the innocent, simple-hearted creatures have eyes that would light a candle.” Affectionate love was a marked feature in Ragland's character. When
one of the monthly Catechists from the south fell sick, Mr. Ragland gave up to him his own bed.
The Native Christians remark that a change sometimes take place in European Missionaries as they get " acclimated.” At first they seem all love, inclined to shake hands even with a cooly ; hy degrees they become reserved and stand upon their dignity. Converts were perhaps expected to be angelic beings. Undue expectations not being realized, a revulsion of feeling took place. Europeans in India are often hasty. Arthur observes,
“ One of the first things a Hindu does when introduced to an Englishman, is to scan him thoroughly, mainly with a view of deciding in his own mind whether or not he is Kopishtanu, a man of anger. For, by some means or other, they have got the impression that a white face, though a very respectable thing in India, is not in itself an absolute guarantee against infirmities of temper.'
The climate is said to try the nerves, and render Europeans fretful and impatient. This is at least a very convenient excuse. One cause probably is that at home Europeans mingle more with their equals, and are obliged to discipline their tempers ; in India they are thrown among persons considered their inferiors, and they give way without restraint. Servants are the parties who suffer chiefly from the want of temper on the part of Europeans. Missionaries are not exempt from this failing. The following extract will shew how it may be best overcome. Colonel Browne writes,
“I had arranged on Mr. Ragland's leaving Madras to take his head-servant into my own employ; and wishing for information as to the rates which ihe man had been in the habit of charging for house supplies, I begged Mr. Ragland to leave me his account book. "He hesitated for a little, but at length gave me the book, saying, while a deep blush overspread his countenance, I am almost ashamed to let you have it, but you must not mind what you will see in it; it is my infirmity. I had seldom looked on such accounts, so methodically arranged, so punctually entered, and exhibiting so clearly every item of each day's expenditure, and at the head of each page was a text of Scriptare, “ Masters, give unto your servants that which is just and equal ; knowing that ye also have a Master in heaven.' Be ye angry, and sin not ; let not the sun go down upon your wrath ;' and others of similar import. It was to this that he had referred ; not indeed in any way ashamed that I should know of his infirmity, but only, as I at once understood, fearing to exalt himself in my estimation by his manner of meeting it. This infirmity, as I never knew till after his decease, was hastiness of temper. Intimate as I had been with bim for years, and constantly associated with him in committee, where unavoidably many things occur very trying to the temper, I had never once observed even a momentary failure. I had, it may be, occasionally neticed a slightly heightened colour, a very transient shadow a feeling of vexation or disappointment ; but on no single occasion do I remember that any such feeling ever found expression in word or gesture. And in this, as I have deeply felt, lay the key of his life, the holy life of which everyone who has ever seen him felt the reality and the power. He lived on the word of God and on prayer.... It was in the word and in prayer that he found strength so wonderfully to master his infirmity.
* Mission to Mysore, p. 36.
In his intercourse with the people, let a Missionary guard most carefully against any outburst of temper. It will rob him of half his usefulness, even although he may be esteemed for other eminent qualities.
A Missionary should seek to be accessible to the people. His house should not resemble that of an official, where none can gain admittance except through the good graces of servants. There should be no savage dogs on the premises, ready to fly at a stranger. Servants should be specially charged to be courteous to any persons who seem to be inquirers.
Persevering Energy.—There can be no question that the climate of India disposes to indolence; but the
more one gives way to it, the more does the least exeition become a burden. Obsta principiis. Be suspicious of easy chairs and couches.
There are some men who do four-fold the amount of work got through by others, apparently endowed with equal talents and equally healthy. The following remarks by Sir T. F. Buxton have been often quoted, but as they should indelibly be impressed on the mind of a young Missionary, they are given again
“ The longer I live, the more I am certain that the great difference between men, between the feeble and the powerful, the great and the insignificant, is ENERGY-INVINCIBLE DETERMINATION-a purpose once fixed, and then death or victory. That quality will do any thing that can be done in this world ;--and no talents, no circumstunces, no opportunities, will make a two-legged creature a Man without it.”
A judicious arrangement of time is of great consequence. Shakespeare says that a man doubtful which of two things he should first begin, does neither. Sir Walter Scott, writing to a young friend not remarkable for industry, warned him to beware of what the women expressively call dawdling, and to arrange his time as regularly as a Dutch clock, with the hours, half-hours, and quarters, all marked. Plan so that the studies requiring most mental effort may be pursued when the mind is fresh. The least fatiguing subjects can be taken up after meals or in the evening. Remember that the mind is recruited by variety as well as by rest.
Few men went through more work than John Wesley, although it is noticed that he never was in a hurry. His biographer explains it. After describing the work of a day, it is remarked :
“We have given this account at large, as a specimen of his exactness in redeeming the time. Those who have not been intimately acquainted with Mr. Wesley will be surprised at our declaring, what we are persuaded is the truth, that it would be difficult to fix upon a single year in the fifty-three which fol