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creased by one-half, and those who drank and poisoned themselves before have largely increased their consumption.” An intelligent native writer says, “ Can it be that our country is only to part with its idolatry for drunkenness ?" The Khair-Khwah 1 Hind observes, “It cannot but be a cause of much grief to all truly Christian men that this evil habit is spreading like a contagious disease among the Native Christians. So far has it already spread that many Hindus and Mahomedans regard it as almost an inevitable result of becoming Christians. It thus becomes a stumblingblock to many of them.” The following sad case came under the compiler's own observation. The son of a highly respectable Native Chief in Ceylon, after receiving an English education, expressed a wish to be baptized. The father, about seventy years of age, said he had no objection, provided his son did not become a drunkard. Bụt the young man, besides acquiring the habit of using intoxicating liquors himself, induced his father to join him. Drunkenness soon carried off the old man, while the son was tempted to a crime which led to several years confinement in jail.
Some valuable Mission Agents have been ruined by strong drink. Unquestionably the temperate use of wine and beer by European Missionaries, in some cases prompted such to enter upon a course which proved fatal in the end. It is admitted that under certain circumstances the occasional use of wine and beer may be advantageous to a European, especially after long residence. But the reason of this should be explained to Mission Agents. It is an excellent practice to invite Native Ministers occasionally to dine with the European Missionary; but wine or beer should not be offered to them. On the contrary, it should be shown why they should abstain. The Khair-Khwah I Hind has the following just remarks :
“We cannot conceive why people, after becoming Christians, should think it necessary to commence the habit of drink. ing. It is certain that there can be no real necessity for it in their case; for previous to their receiving Christianity they had no need of it, and why afterwards ? Have they, by becoming Christians, contracted such an amount of bodily weakness as to render stimulating drinks necessary ? Or do they think it an essential part of the Christian religion, so that they cannot be perfect without it? ...... Why do Europeans whose example is worthy of imitation drink at all? Generally b. cause of weakness induced by the effects of the climate. This is not the case with our Native Christians; and therefore it is no reason for them to follow the example of Europeans. And on what occasions do our Native Christians usually indulge this habit ? Is it when sickness comes upon them ? No, it is generally when they come together on occasion of a wedding or a holiday. Some seem to think that they cannot enjoy themselves without drinking. Others follow the very questionable custom of Europeans in drinking each other's health on such occasions, as if their health and prosperity depended upon it."
All parts of the Mission field are not equally bad. In general, those which profess to have made the highest advance in "European civilisation" are the worst. Care should
be taken to obtain good water for drinking purposes. Dr. Letheby, Health Officer to the city of London, is disposed to think, that impure water is before impure air as one of the most powerful causes of disease. It is supposed, with good reason, that the hill diarrhoea of India is frequently caused by water loaded with rotten vegetable matter. “ Mr. Hare has often prevented patients from drinking any but rain water, collected in a tub by stretching a sheet on four poles, and always with the result of stopping the diarrhoea."*
Where water is bad, rain from the roof may be stored up a cistern. But this is seldom necessary.
The water of most tanks is filled with animalcules, and is not fit for use till it is boiled or otherwise purified. Muddy water may be rendered transparent
* Report of the Sanitary Commissioners, p. 242.
by a small quantity of alum, or by the clearing nut used by the natives. Drinking water may be filtered through earthen pots, containing sand and charcoal. Most servants employed by Europeans know how to arrange them. Water may be rendered tolerably cool by placing it in a porous vessel in a draught. By means of saltpetre, the temperature may be reduced still further. Ice is now procurable at some stations. It is very refreshing and acts as a tonic.
Liquids have a tendency to increase perspiration. The thirst is only temporarily allayed; for as fast as they are drank, so fast a nearly equal quantity of fluid exudes. Hence, a mouthful of cold water now and then will moderate thirst almost as effectually as an equal number of tumblers. The less one can drink between meals the better, and the less, when accustomed to it, is suffered from thirst.
Exercise. -Many of the Missionaries who have lived longest and done most work in India attribute their good health, under Gud, in a great measure to regular exercise. It is more necessary here than in England, though from the diminished vital energy, it should in general not be of a violent character. Exercise should be taken in the cool of the day, about sun-rise and sun-set. The morning is greatly to be preferred, as the air is then fresh and the ground cool from the dew; whereas in the evening both are often too much heated to refresh you. In order, therefore, to preserve your health and keep yourself active for important work, you should always be out at day-break, and home again, if possible, before the sun has been long up. The degree and description of exercise to be taken must be regulated by every individual's constitution. In general the best exercise is riding, next to it is walking. It is well to alternate these, taking one in the morning, the other in the evening. Commence and close the exercise with gentleness. Take exercise, as far as may be, with some object of interest in view.
Native Christians or schools may be visited ; addresses may be given in villages.
A drive in a carriage is most suitable for ladies who are not strong. Gentle pressure and friction over the surface of the body, but particularly over the limbs, invigorates the circulation after fatigue as well as after long inaction. During the rainy season the swing may be practised within doors, when the weather does not admit of a drive. In chronic disorders of the viscera, it is grateful and salutary.
Never allow mere languor to prevent the usual exercise. Inactivity steals imperceptibly upon a person, but it often arises from the peculiar nature of the climate, and not from over-fatigue. Instead of giving way to it and becoming indolent, rouse yourself to active effort.
Occupation of an interesting character is a great preservative against disease. The inactive life generally lead by European ladies in India, is one cause why their health suffers. If they engaged in efforts for the enlightenment of their Hindu sisters,-comely though the sun hath looked upon them,—they would both do good and get good in every respect.
Exposure to the Sun.-With regard to this, there is considerable difference of opinion. Some go to one extreme, some to another. Much depends on the constitution. According to the homely proverb, “one man's meat is another man's poison.” It is well for the new.comer to be cautious. Sunstroke or violent attacks of illness have often been the result of rash exposure. The stranger does not feel the heat much at first, and is apt to regard old Indians as effeminate. Advice is sometimes not listened to, till experience has been bought at a dear rate. The sun is a treacherous foe, occasionally smiting a man in a course which he seemed to have often followed before with impunity.
Always wear a pith hat when obliged to go out during the heat of the day. Use also an umbrella, covered with white cloth. The heat from the ground is often greater than the direct rays of the sun. The eyes are apt to be affected. Wire-gauze goggles, with large green or blue glasses in the centre,
are the best guard against glare. Take care that the horizontal rays of the sun do not fall on the temples or neck.
Keep as much at home during the heat of the day as is compatible with your duties. . When required to proceed any distance, go in a covered vehicle. Hough remarks, “ To walk a mile in a tropical sun, with the heat reflected upon you from the ground, and burning your feet, as well as scorching you from above, will generally exhaust the power of the body, and consequently depress the energies of the mind to such a degree as to render you incapable of attending to the duty you went to perform.”
To stand inactive in the sun is much more injurious than to move about with the mind engaged. Proper food is a great preservative. A Missionary in Travancore, when visiting village congregations on Sunday, spent the whole day out, either with cold provisions, or rice and curry badly prepared. In the evening he often returned with a severe headache and quite exhausted. Afterwards he adopted the plan of sending out a servant on Saturday to have his meals properly cooked: His headaches disappeared, and he came home at night comparatively fresh.
When particularly exposed to the sun, a few smooth large leaves inside the hat will be found useful. White covers, quilted with cotton, greatly moderate the heat in palanquins and carriages.
Sunstroke. On the first symptoms of giddiness, flushing of the face, fulness of blood in the head, or dimness of vision, pour cold water over the head, and keep it wet (with the cap on) for some hours. This will often prevent further injury. If a person has been struck down, the best remedy is cold water poured upon the head and chest. The pouring should not be