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generally remain much longer. They afford an excellent means of reaching the middle and upper classes, who are not acted upon at all by street preaching.
Only a few brief remarks can be made on this important class of schools.
1. Require a moderately high fee.--Some evil has been done by the multiplication of English Schools. Natives who pick up even a few English words consider manual labour to be degrading, and would rather endure the most abject poverty than work. In some parts there are numbers hanging about in the hope of eventually obtaining some
“ situation.” It may be said that stern necessity will teach them more correct views; but each individual is slow to learn the lesson, and during the years he spends in idleness, he is apt to acquire habits which will effectually prevent his ever becoming a useful member of society. A somewhat high fee will tend to limit the attendance to the children of parents able to keep them at school for a sufticient time.
2. Teach English simply as a language in the lower classes, and give information through the Vernacular.- Most of the pupils do not remain long enough to be able to read with understanding an ordinary English book. If they leave school after having acquired only a few English words and phrases, the great object of education will have been lost. The remedy is to use the vernaculars largely in the junior classes. This will not interfere with the progress of the children in English. “ It may be argued that by reading history in the Vernacular where it is now read in English, you diminish the school-boy's opportunities of familiarizing himself with English; but under the present system, the boy learns neither English nor the Vernacular." *
A child whose intelligence has been quickened by knowledge acquired through his own language, wiji
* Education Report, North-West Provinces.
make more rapid progress in English than a pupil who has done nothing else than sit listlessly the whole day with an English book in his hand.
3. Give religious instruction in the Vernacular The way to reach the hearts of the children is through their mother-tongue. If they are addressed in a language which they comprehend with difficulty, their thoughts will be taken up merely with the wordsnot with the subject matter.
4. Missionaries should give their undivided attention to large English Institutions. Some home theorists think that Missionaries should give only religious instruction; they regard lessons on secular subjects as a sort of desecration of their office. Missionaries who should thus act as a sort of School Chaplains would do little good. It is the man, like the late John Anderson of Madras, who devotes himself entirely to his pupils who acquires an influence over them which can be turned to the best account. Trained teachers of a thorough Missionary spirit may be attached with advantage to English Institutions to superintend the lower classes; but they should likewise give the religious instruction to those under their care.
Heathen Holidays.-A few Missionaries give holidays on great festivals. The reason assigned is, that the pupils will not come, and, therefore, it is useless to keep the school open. This, pro tanto, seems an encouragement of idolatry. The festival is a marked day, and the children have nothing else to do than attend to idolatrous ceremonies. - On the other hand, a few Missionaries fine their pupils for non-attendance This also is wrong:
The course thus described by Dr. Wilson of Bombay, is generally followed and is the best :
“With reference to the Native holidays, the rule of the school is, that permission is neither given to attend them, nor punishment inflicted because of their observance, or, to quote the Native expression used, they procure neither raza nor saza. The responsibility of the holidays is thus made to rest, where it ought to rest, with the parents and children themselves."*
Anderson of Madras thus gives his experience of the above rule :
" Without making attendance at school upon these days compulsory, but simply by keeping it open for all who choose to attend, the matter is settled practically, and the holidays set aside.”+
Range of Studies.- In many Institutions the subjects studied are all that could be wished; but in some the range is very contracted, a disproportionate time being given to one branch, while others are entirely overlooked. History with some is the great object of secular study. It is absolutely certain that a large majority of the boys attending English, Schools will never obtain a complete education ; they would not master even one or two subjects, although their attention was devoted solely to them. Numbers when they leave school subside into a state of intellectual stagnation, and remain all their lives nearly as ignorant as the masses around them. The problem is, how can the mind be so aroused during the short school period that its continued exercise afterwards may be secured ? Nature herself by her phenomena excites the opening faculties of the child. Too often a contracted education directs his attention to mere words, and the universe becomes to him a blank. Separate text-books on the divisions of physical science are not required ; lessons on the principal points can be introduced in ordinary Reading Books. The minds of the pupils will thus be exercised at the same time that they are acquiring English ; while their vocabulary will be more complete than if their reading was confined to history, although that is important in its place.
The compiler consulted Canon Moseley about educa* Evangelization of India, p. 485. + True Yoke-Fellows, P. 93.
tion in India. One of his recommendations was the study of natural science, to counteract the metaphysical tendency of the Hindu mind. Its neglect even in England is thus noticed by the Commissioners appointed to inquire into Public Schools :
“Natural science, with such slight exceptions as have been noticed above, is practically excluded from the education of the higher classes in England. Education with us, is, in this respect, narrower than it was three centuries ago, whilst science has prodigiously extended her empire, has explored immense tracts, divided them into provinces, introduced into them order and inethod, and made them accessible to all. This exclusion is, in our view, a plain defect and a great practical evil.” Report, p. 38.
The opinion of Canon Moseley is corroborated by the Bengal Council of Education :
“ The want of every thing of a practical character in the educational course at present appears to the Council to be its greatest defect. Every thing that strikes the senses, one-half of the whole circle of knowledge is, as it were, ignored in our present scheme of education. This the Council incline to think, would be a grave defect in any country, but they cannot doubt it is so in India.':
Corporal Punishment, &c.— The compiler has seen in more than one Mission School, a Native teacher with the New Testament in one hand and a cane in the other, the boys taking places as in other lessons. This is much to be reprehended. Indigenous teachers often treat their pupils with severity. Attention to this subject is necessary even in Mission Schools. No teacher should be allowed to go about with a cane in his hand; least of all should he have it during religious instruction.
Intercourse with former Pupils. It is very desirable to keep up some connection with old scholars Although few of them make a profession of Christianity before leaving the Institutions, often religious impressions remain, which it is desirable to cherish, The Missionary should occasionally review the list of pupils who have left, and consider what can be done for them. They should, if possible, be induced to attend lectures and religious services. There might be a special annual meeting for all residing in the city. Suitable tracts might be sent once a year to those at out-stations.
GRANTS-IN-AID AND UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS.
The following extract will show the change which has taken place of late years :
" The spread of Education has altered materially the position once occupied by our Schools. In Bengal, especially, where most progress
has been made, the Missionaries find it necessary to conduct the Schools with reference to the standard enforced by the entrance examination of the Calcutta University, and to compete with Native Schools conducted according to European methods of instruction, and often efficiently worked by graduates from the Indian University, and aided by grants from the public money. To be successful in this competition, the Missionary must either devote much of his own time to the school, or have à staff of well paid Assistants. In either case the school becomes a much heavier burden to the Society than it used to be. Formerly, to teach even the rudiments of our tongue was esteemed a boon, and the Missionary could at a comparatively trifling cost of time and money secure a numerous attendance at his school, where the course of instruction was laid down with reference solely to his own views of what it was desirable to teach, and to the means at his disposal. Now all this is changed. He is obliged to adopt the widely different standard of those who regard education from another, i. e., a secular point of view. It is not that religion necessarily suffers from this increaseil momentum in secular instruction. But unfortunately men and money are not forthcoming in any proportional readiness on the part of the Church to keep pace with the accelerated secular progress.
At the Liverpool Conference, the Rev. J. Gardiner,
* Report of the Calcutta Committee, C. M. S. for 1862, p. 42, )