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teacher goes to her scholars. Public schools for girls and women are greatly opposed to the ideas of respectable Hindus.
2. Female education is of English origin, and is therefore most obnoxious to the Old School of Natives. This new sphere must therefore be sought amongst the families of educated men, or men who have at least accepted some enlightenment.
3. From the nature of the case, all gentlemen are excluded from these Missions. They are the work of ladies alone. This work must be done quietly ; Zenanas are not to be asked about, and when anything is published, names and places should be carefully kept back. In seeking them out, enquiry should be made privately of individuals. Though small at first, the work will grow, through the information given by ladies to one another.
4. Caution may well be used at first, as to Christian instruction ; Caution without Compromise. It is TRUE wisdom to disarm prejudice by kind acts, by shewing interest in a family; and, as opportunity arises, as questions are asked, truth may more fully be declared, and books more decided, introduced.
5. As things advance, it may be convenient to induce several families near together to join in a school in one house. A Native female teacher should instruct regularly, and, if possible, two ladies should visit together, or a lady and the Native teacher.
6. If possible, payment should be required from the outset for work and other materials ; also, if practicable, for the teacher who does the mechanical part of the work.
7. It is all-important that the ladies who visit, should speak the Native language. They may do much good by conversation alone. Visiting as teachers, they get rid of all ordinary visiting topics, and can give their whole time and thought to topics which give practical instruction.” *
In some districts where Missions have recently been commenced, it is impossible to obtain Christian female teachers. The Rev. J. F. Ullmann thus gives the result of his experience about Etawah :
“1. It is easier to start a Zenana School in a village than in a large town. Prejudice is not so strong in the former, and the system of caste and pardahnashini* not so strictly kept there as in a city.
* Punjab Conference Report, pp. 66,67. See the whole paper and the discussion,
2. Villages or towns which have Government Schools are the most likely places to meet with success. People there have got accustomed to seeing their boys instructed, and parents and brothers become consequently more willing to have also their daughters or sisters taught, than in villages where all is entirely new.
3. I find that female teachers are not so desirable as male teachers. This applies of course only to newly established schools of the kind that I speak of. Females here have not only no idea whatever of teaching or keeping order, but they have :lso no influence among their own people, and their natural rimidity, fostered by caste and pardahnashini, inakes them unfit for arranging any thing like a school and for teaching in it. Again, Nativrs (I mean Hindus and Mohamedans) (o not like to be taught by females ; and lastly, though not least, is the fact that these females who are willing to teach are generally widows or forsaken wives, who, though even of high caste, have as a class generally not a good reputation. Whether they are rightly or wrongly suspected, parents do not like to have such women teach their children.
4. The best teachers for Zenana Schools in my opinion are aged Pundits or indigenous teachers. Whenever I can, I take the Purohit of the place or some other Brahman who has the confidence of the people. They are even admitted into Zenanas, and if they are willing to conduct a Zenapa School, and a fixed salary is always a powerful lever with them) and are able to do it, they may soon have a thriving one.
5. I find it necessary to have a certain number of schools with their teachers placed under a superintending Pundit, who visits them regularly, sees what he can do to enlarge them, encourages the teachers, supplies them with the necessary boards and books, and reports to me all that he has seen.
6. The Missionary's wife, or the wife of a native Christian (if possible not one who was originally of a low caste) in whom you have confidence, are to examine every school and Zenana from time to time. This however must not be too often, particularly at the commencement of a new school, else the people will be intimidated and become suspicious.
* Not allowing women to appear in public,
7. In cities the house for the school should be in the centre of wards inhabited by Brahmans or Kaisths, &c, so that children have not far to go to reach it. The house should not occupy a prominent position.
8. I believe it does good to give the children occasionally a litle treat. Sweetmeats or other eatables must be procured by the teachers – if you like in your presence – but of course paid for by us. Little presents of dolls or toys, &c., will do wonders in attaching them to the school. This must of course not be too frequent, else it would be introducing the pay system in a different form.
9. To introduce any thing like strict order and regularity is at first out of the question. I have hitherto been quite contented, if upon some examination from time to time I find that the girls have made some progress.
10. 1 keep no Register book in the school. If I want to drive a girl from the school I need only ask her name and write it down. Their suspicion is easily roused and we must therefore be careful.
11. No male visitor or examiner is ever admitted into a Zenana School. I consider this indispensably necessary in order to secure success. Let it be known every where that this is the case.
12. I have one or two superintending pundits continnally on the move, visiting the schools which have been established and looking out for places where new ones might be started. I find it now not at all difficult to commence a new school. If an ayed pundit presents himself and promises to start one in his village or town, I give him at once a few reading and writiny boards, and a tat for the girls to sit on. These few materials are to him and others a sure sign, that a school is really to be commenced, and that he is employed by me. I promise to pay him for any number of girls below 16, 4 Rupees; if they reach the number 15 he receives 5 Rupees, if 20, 6 Rupees; and so oni, 1 Rupee for every 5 girls. I may have reason to alter this scale by and by, but at present I see it works well.
13. In some schools it may be necessary to keep an aged woman as a servant to fetch the little girls in the morning, and to take them to their bomes when school is over,
* Missionary Notes and Queries for 1864, Pi). 91-3.
Papers on Female Education in the Ootacamund and the Punjab Conference Reports, and Robinson's “ Daughters of India,” should be consulted.
BIBLE WOMEN. This Agency has been tried in some places with an encouraging degree of success. The difficulty is to get women for the work, “ worth their salt.”
XVIII. INTERCOURSE WITH EUROPEANS.
WITH MISSIONARIES OF THE SAME SOCIETY. Harmony.-- When it is considered that even Paul and Barnabas had such sharp contention about Mission arrangements that they parted company, it will not appear strange that occasionally there are divisions among Missionaries. Ziegenbalg and Plutscho, the first Protestant Missionaries to India, seem to have disagreed, which led to the return to Europe of the latter.* There are a few Missionaries who keep every one around them in hot water; they quarrel with their brethren, they quarrel with Native Agents. Missionaries are sometimes isolated, surrounded only by natives whom they are accustomed to command. Such men often ill brook whatever they conceive to be opposition. Cases have occurred in which brethren who advocated adherence to regular business forms have been treated as if they offered personal insults. It is very humiliating that men, placed as 'soldiers of Christ in the fore-front of the battle, should sometimes, instead of fighting for their great Captain, be wrangling among themselves. One of the most painful duties of Home Secretaries and Committees is, at times, to endeavour to restore harmony among Missionaries.
* Tranquebar Mission, p. 117.
Swan has the following remarks :
“ Missionaries associated together in the honorable and arduous work of evangelising the heathen, have a strong, a sacred bond of union ; and this bond, it might be supposed, can in no case be in danger of being broken. Those who have made accurate observations on human nature, however, will not find it difficult to believe that even Missionaries may • fall out by the way ;' and that much wisdom and grace are necessary to preserve, in all its integrity and beauty, the golden chain of love which constitutes a Missionary bond. That there have been and are so many edifying instances of this cordial union and co-operation, is not to be regarded as matter of course, but to be ascribed to the influence of that elevated Christian principle, and that spirit of consecration to the advancement of the common cause, which make those who occupy the same field of labour smother every germ of dissension, and have taught each to look, not upon his own things but the things of others.
“ When a number of individuals are brought together, previously unacquainted with each other, perhaps natives of different countries, of different tastes, habits, and natural tempers; and differing not less, it may be, in point of learning and talent; do not these diversities form so many points of resistance to a close and cordial union ? They have now to act together in a great and responsible work, in which each has an undoubted right to judge for himself. It will therefore soon be discovered that there is among them, in many things, a difference of judgment. Some surpass others in natural and acquired endowments—some will be more active and forward, others more passive and yielding - some fond of study, others more inclined to business and active labour-some with a talent for managing, and others ever jealous of their brother's superiority. It is more than can be expected that in all things they should think and feel alike. The same subject will appear in different lights to different minds ; and now is discovered the difficulty of acting in harmonious oneness of spirit. Even supposing passion and selfishness to have no place among them, how can they pos, sibly avoid occasions of offence? Pursue what plan they may, they must sometimes act in opposition to the views and impressions of duty of some individual of their number. Not to mention peculiarities of natural disposition found in