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opium, or as 80 drops of laudanum.
It is very soluble and active, while from its very small form it often escapes being thrown up.
A large mustard poultice should be applied over the stomach for 10 or 15 minutes. The body should be rubbed with hot flannels wrung out of turpentine. Rubbing is useful in relieving cramps and restoring heat. Hot sand in pillow cases may be applied to the body; hot bottles of water to the feet.
The natives object to water being given to the patient, who generally suffers from violent thirst. European physicians think cold water may be taken with benefit in moderate quantities.
At the first outbreak of cholera, many cases are fatal. No medicine has much effect. An increased number of recoveries is a sign that the epidemic is abating.
The disease varies in its type, requiring somewhat different treatment. Experience will show which remedies are most successful in each case.
Means of Prevention. When cholera is epidemic, special precautions are necessary. Drains should be attended to and filth removed. Houses should be whitewashed. Unripe fruit and other indigestible articles of food should be avoided. Heavy meals should not be taken at night. The body should not be weakened by fasting, exposure, or fatigue. It is important to maintain proper warmth at night. A flannel belt over the abdomen is a great preservative. Give your servants cholera pills, and warn them to use them ere it be too late. Strive to encourage your people, for fear renders them doubly liable to attack.
Liver.- Pain about the right side is the usual symptom. Take a smart purgative, foment the side with hot flannels, avoid wine and beer. If not relieved, seek medical advice.
Relaxed Throat.--Missionaries sometimes suffer from this. A gargle, prepared by mixing chillie vinegar with four times as much water, adding a little sugar, may often be used with advantage.
Country Sore Eyes.—Dissolve six grains of nitrate of silver in one ounce of water. Drop into the eye two drops of the mixture every morning, taking care that the lotion fairly enters between the lids. Washes of alum or sulphate of zinc may also be used as substitutes, but they are not of equal value.
Management of Children.—Procure a copy of Goodeve's excellent little work on the subject.
Bites of Snakes and Mad Dogs-Poisonous snakes are distinguished by having only a single row of teeth in the upper jaw, with poison fangs. Snakes which are not poisonous have a double row of teeth.
If the bite be on the extremities, bind something very tightly above the wound to prevent the absorption of the poison into the general circulation. This should not be removed for some hours. The most effectual remedy is to cut out the part, taking care to go to the bottom of the wound made by both fangs. the skin or lift it up with a pin. Do not be afraid. There are no arteries as a rule near the surface. Burning with a hot iron is another remedy. Lunar caustic may also be applied. Bleeding should be encouraged by warm water. Sucking the wound is very useful. No injury will follow to the person sucking, if his mouth is not scratched. The wound may then be well rubbed with liquor ammoniæ, and 30 drops in brandy may be taken internally every hour or two.
Mustard plasters should be applied, if the patient becomes cold and insensible.
The pain caused by the bites of scorpions or centipedes is most speedily relieved by the application of liquor ammoniæ or of ipecacuanha powder, made into a paste with a little water, and applied to the wound. Twenty drops of sal volatile may be taken in a little water. The same treatment will serve for the bites of
wasps. The sting may be generally removed by making pressure over it with the barrel of a small key.
Musquitoes are troublesome to new-comers, especially in Bengal. Lemon juice, salt and water, or oil linament, all allay irritation caused by their bites.
Headaches.-Some people suffer a good deal from headaches. They arise from various causes. It is well to keep the hair short.
Medicines.--The following are some of the most useful : cholera pills, chlorodyne, quinine, calomel, castor oil, ipecacuanha, Dover's powder, laudanum, liquor ammoniæ, lunar caustic, tartar emetic, camphor, James's powder, English mustard and turpentine. It is always wise when travelling to have a small parcel containing at least the following: brandy, chlorodyne, cholera pills, and quinine.
Visiting the Sick.- Never go to infectious cases when you are very fatigued or just before your meals. Your bodily system is weak then, and much less able to throw off poisonous influences. Keep to the windward of the sick person. Do not swallow your saliva, but put it out into a handkerchief.
Acclimation.-Europeans sometimes suffer a good deal from ill-health the first year, and look thin and pale. “When once fairly acclimated,” says Weitbrecht,
they recover their flesh and assume a healthy appearance, though the freshness and bloom of youth may return no more.
Sanitaria.- Lord Canning, himself a noble worker, observed,
"I have learnt by experience so to value the services of the able men who are under my authority as to know that there is nothing wiser in policy or of truer economy than to place occasional healthful rest within the easy reach of those who labour hard, whether their labour be for the State or for private interest3-and to enable English blood and English lungs to be invigorated by a more congenial atmosphere than the debilitating vapours or parching winds of Hindoostan,"
The American Madura Mission have two or three houses on the Pulney Hills, where each family is permitted to reside for a certain period annually, travelling expenses being allowed. The plan has been highly beneficial. A few other Missions are gradually adopting the same course. It is true, as Dr. Anderson remarks, “Such institutions are hard to regulate. There is a tendency in them to grow, and to degenerate into mere watering places.
Sanitaria are of chief use as prophylactic, or for recovery after illnesses not of a
severe character. To persons whose constitutions are much broken, they afford merely temporary relief; they sink again on returning to the plains. A voyage home, in such cases, is the only effectual remedy.
Tours in tents will often be found of great service to the health.
Diffusion of Sanitary Knowledge.-Indian towns are thus described :
“ The towns and bazaars in the vicinity of lines are in the worst possible sanitary state, undrained, unpaved, badly cleansed, often teeming with offensive and dangerous nuisances ; with tanks, pools, and badly-made surface gutters, containing filth and foul water ; the area overcrowder with houses, put up without order or regularity ; the external ventilation obstruc. ted, and the houses overcrowded with people; no public latrines, and every spare plot of ground covered with filth in consequence; no water supply, except what is obtained from bad shallow wells and unwholesome or doubtful tanks. These towns and bazaars are the earliest seats of epidemics especially of cholera." Report, p. 161.
It will thus be seen how important it is, in addition to other efforts, to diffuse sound knowledge among the people. The Reading Books of the Christian Vernacular Education Society contain lessons on the structure of the body and the means of preserving the health, graduated according to the capacities of the
readers. The use of such books is an effectual means of securing the end in view.*
IV. HOUSEHOLD ARRANGEMENTS.
Value of System.-The Missionary has a great work before him, more than sufficient to task all his energies. Though some attention, to household affairs is absolutely necessary, the aim should be to reduce it to a minimum. By taking a little care at first, effective supervision, under ordinary circumstances, need not occupy more than a few minutes weekly. Where much hospitality has to be exercised, a longer time will be required.
The chief point is to get into a good system. Indian servants are very docile, and may be trained to great regularity. If the master is methodical himself, every thing, after a little trouble, can be made to work like clock-work, without friction. In one house, without a word being heard on the subject, meals will be on the table as the hour strikes ; in another, it is impossible to tell when breakfast or dinner will make its appearance. In the latter case, the blame is often laid upon the servants; but the origin of the evil lies with the master. Time and temper, both very valuable considerations, will be saved by a little forecast.
Choice of Servants.— With care, good servants can generally be obtained. Beware of the men who attach themselves to the floating population of the Presidency towns. Do not put confidence in characters from
* The materials of this chapter have been drawn chiefly from Martin's Influence of Tropical Climates, Medical Hints by Dr. Elliot in Ferguson's Ceylon Directory, Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the sanitary state of the Army in India, and a paper prepared by Dr. Green, Medical Missionary, Jaffna. Several valuable suggestions have been received from Dr. Paterson, Medical Missionary, Madras, who has also kindly revised the whole. Other books which the Missionary may consult, will be found mentioned in the appendix.