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tants, but were slain by the Garandæi, who by an act of great treachery got possession of the palm-grove and fountains. Here likewise is the desert of Faran, the Pharan of Ptolemy; which in its situation agrees precisely with the Pàran of the scriptures. Diodorus further speaks of some rocks or pillars here, engraven with unknown characteristics. The same history of this Phænicon, or palm-grove, and the fountains, is given by · Strabo, who places it rather low upon the coast, and says, that the next object towards the bottom was the Insula Phocarum. These must have been the fountains mentioned by Moses, and a continuation of the same palms, unless we suppose the nature of the country to have been altered. For we do not read that there was any other part of the region which had either ont, etant extrêmement jaunes, qu' à cause du peu de profondeur, que l'æil ne sçauroit reconnoître: et pour en être certain, il fallut qui j'y employasse le doigts. Neanmoins ces lettres ne sont point gâtées, et paroissent fort nettes. v lo p. 449, 450. Pocock. p. 148.
La vallee de Girondel, de meme que celle de Faran. Niebuhr, Arabie, p. 346, 347. · Waad Pharan in the way to Tor. Pocock. p. 141. See also p. 157. The promontory below, called now Ras Mohammed, is the Arpaingsoy Ququr of Ptolemy.
* L. 16. p. 1122.
such a grove of trees or such waters. Thus it was in the time of the Israelites, and so it was found to be in the time of Strabo and Diodorus; and thus we find it at this day. Strabo gives a reason why this little district was so much honoured and frequented. All TO TATAV Tan κυκλω καυματηραν τε, και ανυδρον και ασκιον υπαρzelv.-Because all the country about was parched up with heat, being without water, and without a tree, that could afford shade.
Monconys, in his return through the desert from Mount Sinai, took a lower way to the south towards a place called now Tor, where seems to be the district described by Strabo and Diodorus, near Paran. He mentions a valley which he passed through, and in this valley towards the end he saw the rocks with ancient inscriptions; and at last came to a place, which he seems very justly to sup-. pose the Elim of the scriptures- situé au fonds de céte plaine on bord de la mer et ou sont les douze * fontaines. He adds ces eaux vont arrosant une quantite de beaux palmiers, fermés de murailles ; et qui sont bien augmentés en nombre au dela des septante, que Moyse y trouva. He tells us however,
'L. 16. p. 1122. . 2 P. 450, 451.
that the waters are at this day by no means of a good taste.---' C'est en ce lieu, ou Moyse trouva les douze fontaines, et les (septante) palmiers. On y voit encore les douze fonțaines, ou sources, qui sortent du pié de la montagne. Elles on un assez mauvais goût. - aussi y a-t-il la un petit bain chaud, qu'on nomme de Moyse. Strabo - intimates, that the waters were in the time of Artemidorus very good ; and from the Israelites encamping near them we may infer the same of them then. But this is not an article of much consequence. For all that we are told by Moses is, that at the place where they arrived they found twelve wells and seventy palm-trees. The fountains remain precisely the same in number, and the palm-trees are not extinct; on the contrary, they are multiplied. Notwithstanding what Monconys says, travellers take notice of fountains of good water, though mixed with others of an inferior quality, as we learn from Dr Pocock. He visited this district, and says, that in going southward towards Tor, and about a league
'P. 450. They are called Hammam Mousa. Shaw, p. 350.
* Duco de esdotègw xelobe T870 (so Docudoor) Tou Enduits feugov. çurexin ds to Moreidis Polvixava Eivi suvdgov. 1. 16. p. 1122.
from it towards the north---' there is a well of good water ; and all about it are a great number of dat e-trees or palms, and several spring's of salt water, especially to the south-east, where the monks have a garden. Near it are several springs (as we may infer of good water), and a bath or two, which are called the baths of Moses. The Greeks, as well as some others, are of opinion that this is Elim. To the same purpose is the evidence of the traveller Breitenbach, as he is quoted by Mr Niebuhr. Mr de Breitenbach a deja eu la meme pensée Voici ce qu'il dit en parlant du voyage, qu'il fit en 1483, de la montagne de Sinai a Kahira. Porro inclinatâ jam die ; in torrentem incidimus, dictum Orondem ; ubi figentes tentoria propter aquas, quæ ibi reperiebantur, nocte mansimus illâ : sunt enim in loco isto plures fontes vivi, aquas claras scaturientes. Sunt et palmæ multæ ibi'; unde suspicabamur illic ese desertum Helim.
It may perhaps be thought that these names were introduced by Christian travellers, and adopted by the later inhabitants of these parts. But this could not have been the case. Arisia
'Pocock, p. 141. * Niebuhr, vol. 1. p. 183. in the notes.
'ton, Artemidorus, Agatharchides, and Dio. dorus, all lived before the æra of Christianity. Even Strabo was some years antecedent. The learned Abulfeda of Hamath was indeed much later ; but he could have no regard for the religion of Jesus or of the Jews, nor any prejudice in favour of Moses. The names therefore have remained from the beginning unimpaired, and the situation of the places which they point out correspond so precisely with those mentioned in the scriptures, and are supported by such indisputable authority, that they appear manifestly to be the same as those mentioned by the sacred historian.
Review of the Course taken by the Children of
* Israel in their journeying.
We have seen how very regular and plain the route of the children of Israel is found to be from their setting out upon the fifteenth day of the first month to their arrival at Elim. From Rameses they journeyed to Succoth, and from Succoth to Etham, to the border of that wildernesss. Then they removed from Etham, and turned again unto Piha-Hiroth, and