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2. But, as for the tyrants themselves, and those that were with them, when they found that they were oncompassed on every side, and, as it were, walled round, without any method of escaping, they desired to treat with Titus by word of mouth. Accordingly, such was the kindness of his nature, and his desire of preserving the city from destruction, and was joined t the advice of his friends, who now thought the robbers were come to a ternper, that he placed himself on the western side of the outer [court of the] temple; for there were gates on that side above the Xystus, and a bridge that connected the upper city to the temple. This bridge it was that lay between the tyfants and Cæsar, and parted them ; while the multitude stood on each side; those of the Jewish nation about Simon and John, with great hopes of pardon, and the Romans about Cæsar, in great expectation how Titus would receive their supplication. So Titus charged his soldiers to restrain their rage, and to let their darts alone, and appointed an interpreter between them, which was a sign that he was the conqueror, and first began the discourse, and said, “I “hope you, Sirs, are now satiated with the miseries of " your country, who have not had any just notions either “ of our great power, or of your own great weakness, but “ have, like madmen, after a violent and inconsiderate “ manner, made such attempts, as have brought your peo6s ple, your city, and your holy house to destruction. You “ have been the men that have never left off rehelling since “ Pompey first conquered you, and have since that time made 66 open war with the Romans. Have you depended on your "multitude, while a very small part of the Roman soldiery 6 have been strong enough for you? Have you relied on the “ fidelity of your confederates ? And what nations are there, “out of the limits of our dominion, that would choose to as“ sist the Jews before the Romans ? Are your bodies stron" ger than ours? Nay, you know that the [strong] Ger“mans themselves are our servants. Have you stronger 6 walls tlian we have ? Pray, what greater obstacle is there " than the wall of the ocean, with which the Britons are “encompassed, and yet do adore the arms of the Romans. “Do you exceed us in courage of soul, and in the sagacity “ of your commanders? Nay, indeed, you cannot but “know that the very Carthaginians have been conquered by "us. It can, therefore, be nothing certainly but the kind

VOL. VII.

“ness of us Romans which hath excited you against us. “ Who, in the first place, have given you this land to “possess ; and, in the next place, have set over you kings " of your own nation ; and, in the third place, have pre* served the laws of your forefathers to you, and have “ withal permitted you to live either by yourselves or “ among others, as it should please you ; and, what is our “ chief favour of all, we have given you leave to gather up “ that tribute which is paid to God,* with such other gifts 66 that are dedicated to him; nor have we called those that “carried these donations to account, nor prohibited them; 5 till at length you became richer than we ourselves, even so when you were our enemies; and you made preparations - for war against us with our own money ; nay, after all, “ when you were in the enjoyment of all these advantages, “ you turned your too great plenty against those that gave - it you, and, like merciless serpents, have thrown out s your poison against those that treated you kindly. I sup- pose, therefore, that you might despise the slothfulness

of Nero, and, like limbs of the body that are broken or " dislocated, you did then lie quiet, waiting for some “ó other time, though still with a malicious intention, and s have now shewed your distemper to be greater than ever, 66 and have extended your desires as far as your impudent 46 and immense hopes would enable you to do it. At this 6 time, my father came into this country, not with a de- sign to punish you for what you had done under Cestius, “ but to admonish you; for, had he come to overthrow - your nation, he had run directly to your fountain-head, - and had immediately laid this city waste ; whereas, he “ went and burnt Galilee and the neighbouring parts, and “ thereby gave you time for repentance; which instance “ of humanity you took for an argument of his weakness, “ and nourished up your impudence by our mildness. “ When Nero was gone out of the world, you did as the is wickedest wretches would have done, and encouraged 56 yourselves to act against us by our civil dissensions, and - abused that time, when both I and my father were gone « away for Egypt, to make preparations for this war. Nor “ were you ashamed to raise disturbances against us when - we were made emperors, and this while you had experi

* Spanheim notes here, that the Romans used to permit the Jews to collect their sacred tribute, and send it to Jerusalem ; of which we have had abundant evidence in Josephus already on other occasions.

şi ence how mild we had been, when we were no more than “ generals of the army. But when the government was de“ volved upon us, and all other people did thereupon lie “ quiet, and even foreign nations sent embassies, and con“gratulated our access to the government, then did you “ Jews shew yourselves to be our enemies. You sent em“bassies to those of your nation that are beyond Euphrates “ to assist you in your raising disturbances : new walls “ were built by you round your city, seditions arose, and “ one tyrant contended against another, and a civil war “ broke out among you : such indeed as became none but “ so wicked a people as you are. I then came to this city, “as unwillingly sent by my father, and received melancholy “ injunctions from him. When I heard that the people 56 were disposed to peace; I rejoiced at it: I exhorted you “ to leave off these proceedings, before I began this war : ♡ I spared you, even when you had fought against me a " great while: I gave my right hand as security to the des “serters : I observed what I had promised faithfully. 6 When they fled to me, I had compassion on many of 6 those I had taken captive : I tortured those that were “ eager for war, in order to restrain them. It was unwil" lingly that I brought my engines of war against your 66 walls ; I always prohibited my soldiers when they were

“set upon your slaughter, from their severity against you. •ts After every victory I persuaded you to peace, as though • I had been myself conquered. When I came near your “ temple, I again departed from the laws of war, and ex“ horted you to spare your own sanctuary, and to preserve 66 your holy house to yourselves. I allowed you a quiet “ exit out of it, and security for your preservation : nay, $if you had a mind, I gave you leave to fight in another “place. Yet have you still despised every one of my pro56 posals, and have set fire to your holy house with your own 6 hands. And now, vile wretches do you desire to treat 5 with me by word of mouth ? to what purpose is it that - you would save such an holy house as this was, which is “ now destroyed ?“what preservation can you now desire " after the destruction of your temple ? Yet do you stand “ still at this very time in your armour ; nor can you bring fr yourselves so much as to pretend to be supplicants, even “ in this your utmost extremity. O miserable creatures ! 6 what is it you depend on? Are not your people dead ? is “pot your holy house gone? is not your city in my power !

* and are not your own very lives in my hands? And do 65 you still deem it a part of valour to die? However, i

will not imitate your madness. If you will throw down - your arms, and deliver up your bodies to me, I grant -- you your lives; and I will act like a mild master of a * family; what cannot be healed shall be punished, and 7. the rest I will preserve for my own use."

3. To that offer of Titus they made this reply, That “they could not accept of it, because they had sworn nev“er to do so ; but they desired they might have leave to : go through the wall that had been made about them, with “ their wives and children ; for that they would go into - the desert and leave the city to him.” At this Titus had great indignation, that, when they were in the case of men already taken captives, they should pretend to make their own terms with him, as if they had been conquerors. So he ordered this proclamation to be made to them, That - they should no more come out to him as deserters, nor so hope for any farther security; for that he would hence'" forth spare no body, but fight them with his whole army ; 6 and that they must save themselves as well as they could; 66 for that he would from henceforth treat them according to "ilie laws of war.” So he gave orders to the soldiers both to burn and to plunder the city ; who did nothing indeed that day ; but on the next day they set fire to the repository of the archives, to Acra, to the council-louse, and to the place called Ophlas ; at which time, the fire proceeded as far as the palace of queen Helena, which was in the middle of Acra : the lanes also were burnt down, as were also those houses that were full of the dead bodies of such as were destroyed by famine. . 4. On the same day it was, that the sons and brethren of izates the king, together with many others of the eminent men of the populace, got together there and besought Casar to give them his right hand for their security: upon which, though he were very angry at all that were now remaining, yet did he not lay aside his old moderation, but received these men. At that time, indeed, he kept them all in custody, but still hound the king's sons, and kinsmen and led them with him to Rome, in order to make them hostages for their country's fidelity to the Romans.

CHAP, VII.

What afterwarıls befel the seditious, when they had done a great

deal of mischief, and suffered many misfortunes; as also how Cæsar became master of the upper city.

§ 1. And now the seditious rushed into the royal palace, into which many had put their effects, because it was so strong, and drove the Romans away from it. They also slew all the people that had crowded into it, who were in number about eight thousand four hundred, and plundered them of what they had. They also took two of the Ro. mans alive; the one was a horseman and the other a footman. They then cut the throat of the footman, and immediately had him drawn through the whole city, as revenging themselves upon the whole body of the Romans by this one instance. But the horseman said, he had somewhat to suggest to them, in order to their preservation ; whereupon, he was brought before Simon; but he having nothing to say when he was there, he was delivered to Ardalas, one of his commanders, to be punished, who bound his hands behind him, and put a ribband over his eyes, and then brought him out overagainst the Romans, as intending to cut off his head. But the man prevented that execution, and ran away to the Romans, and this while the Jewish executioner was drawing out his sword. Now, when he was gotten away from the enemy, Titus could not think of putting him to death ; but, because he deemed him unworthy of being a Roman soldier any longer, on account that he had been taken alive by the enemy, he took away his arms, and ejected him out of that legion whereto he had belonged; which, to one that had a sense of shame, was a penalty severer than death itself.

2. On the next day, the Romans drove the robbers out of the lower city and set all on fire as far as Siloam. These soldiers were indeed glad to see the city destroyed. But they missed the plunder, because the seditious had carried of all their effects, and were retired into the upper city ; for they did not yet at all repent of the mischiefs they had done, but were insolent as if they had done well; for, as they saw the city on fire, they appeared cheerful, and put on

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