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joyful countenances, in expectation as they said of death, to end their miseries. Accordingly, as the people were now slain, the holy house was burnt down, and the city was on fire, there was nothing farther left for the enemy to do. Yet did not Josephus grow weary even in this ut. most extremity, to beg of them to spare what was left of the city; he spake largely to them about their barbarity and impiety, and gave them his advice in order to their escape; though he gained nothing thereby more than to be laughed at by them; and, as they could not think of surrendering themselves up, because of the oath they had taken, nor were strong enough to fight with the Romans any longer upon the square, as being surrounded on all sides, and a kind of prisoners already, yet were they so accustomed to kill people that they could not restrain their right hands from acting accordingly. So they dispersed themselves before the city, and laid themselves in ambush among its rutins, to catch those that attempted to desert to the Romans : accordingly, many such deserters were caught by them, and were all slain ; for these were too weak by reason of their want of food, to fly away from them ; so their dead bodies were thrown to the dogs. Now, every other sort of death was thought more tolerable than the famine, insomuch that though the Jews despaired now of mercy yet would they tly to the Romans, and would themselves, even of thieir own accord, fall among the murderous repels also. Nor was their any place in the city that had no dead bodies in it, but what was entirely covered with those that were killed either by the famine or the rebellion; and all was full of the dead bodies of such as had perished either by that sedition or by that famine. · 3. So now the last hope, which supported the tyrants and that crew of robbers which were with them, was in the caves and caverns under ground; whither, if they would once fly they did not expect to be searched out, but ens deavoured, that, after the whole city should be destroyed, and the Romans gone away, they might come out again, and escape from them. This was no better than a dream of theirs; for they were not able to lie hid either from God or from the Romans. However, they depended on these under-ground subterfuges, and set more places on fire than did the Romans themselves ; and those that fled out of the houses, thus set on fire, into the ditches, they killed with

out mercy and pillaged them also ; and if they discovered food belonging to any one, they seized upon it and swallowed it down, together with their blood also, nay, they were now come to fight with one another about their plugder; and I cannot but think, that had not their destruction prevented it, their barbarity would have made them taste of even the dead bodies themselves.

CHAP. VIII.

How Cæsar raised banks round about the upper city, * and when

they were completed, gave orders that the machines should be brought. He then possessed himself of the whole city.

§ 1. Now, when Cæsar perceived that the upper city was so steep, that it could not possibly be taken without raising banks against it, he distributed the several parts of that work among his army, and this on the twentieth day of the month Lous [Ab]. Now, the carriage of the materials was a difficult task since all the trees, as I have already told you, that were about the city within the distance of an hundred furlongs, had their branches cut off already, in order to make the former banks. The work that belonged to the four legions were erected on the west side of the city, over against the royal palace ; but the whole body of the auxiliary troops, with the rest of the multitude that were with them, [erected their banks] at the Xystus, whence they reached to the bridge, and that tower of Simon which he had built as a citadel for himself against John, when they were at war one with another.

2. It was at this this time, that the commanders of the Idumeans got together privately, and took counsel about surrendering up themselves to the Romans. Accordingly, they sent five men to Titus, and entreated him to give them his right hand for their security. So Titus thinking that the tyrants would yield, if the Idumeans, upon whom a great part of the war depended were once withdrawn from them, after some reluctancy and delay, complied with them, and gave them security for their lives, and sent the five men back. But, as these Idumeans were preparing to

* i. e. Mount Sion.

march out, Simon perceived it, and immediately slew the five men that had gone to Titus, and took their commanders, and put them in prison, of whom the most eminent was Jacob, the son of Sosas; but, as for the multitude of the Idumeans, who did not at all no what to do, now their commander were taken from them, he had them watched, and secured the walls by a more numerous garrison. Yet could not that garrison resist those that were deserting : for, although a great number of them were slain, yet were the deserters many more in number. These were all received by the Romans, because Titus himself grew negligent of his former orders for killing them, and because the very soldiers grew weary of killing them, and because they hoped to get some money by sparing them ; for they left only the populace, and sold * the rest of the multitude with their wives and children, and every one of them at a very low price, and that because such as were sold were very many, and the buyers very few ; and although Titus had made proclamation before-hand, that no deserter should come alone by himself, that so they might bring out their families with them, yet did he receive such as these also. However, he set over them such as were to distinguish some from others, in order to see if any of them deserved to be punished. And indeed the number of those that were sold was immense ; but of the populace above forty thousand were saved, whom Cæsar let go whither every one of them pleased.

3. But now at this time it was, that one of the priests, the son Thebuthus, whose name was Jesus, upon his having security given him by the oath of Cæsar, that he should be preserved upon condition that he should deliver to him certain of the precious things that had been reposited in the temple, t came out of it, and delivered him from the wall of the holy house two candlesticks, like to those that lay

* This innumerable multitude of Jews that were sold by the Romans were an eminent completion of God's ancient threatening by Moses, that, if they apostatized froin the obedience to his laws, they should be sold unto their enemies for bondmen and bondwomen ; Deut. xxvii. 68. See more especially the note on ch, ix. $ 2. But one thing is here peculiarly remarkable, that Moses adds, Though they should be sold for slaves, yet no man should buy them ; i e. either they should have none to redeem them from this sa le into slavery ; or rather, that the slaves to be sold should be more than were the purchasers for them, and so they should be sold for little or nothing ; which is what Josephus here affirms to have been the case at this time.

+ What became of these spoils of the temple that escaped the fire, see Josephus himself hercaster, B. vii. ch. v. 5.-Reland de spoliis templi, 129-138

in the holy house, with tables, and cisterns, and vials, all made of solid gold, and very heavy. He also delivered to him the veils, and the garments, with the precious stones, and a great number of other precious vessels that belonged to their sacred worship. The treasurer of the temple also, whose name was Phincas, was seized on, and shewed Ti. tus the coats and girdles of the priests, with a great quanti. ty of purple and scarlet, which were there reposited for

the uses of the veil, as also a great deal of cinnamon and | cassia, * with a large quantity of other sweet spices, which used to be mixed together and offered as incense to God every day. A great many other treasures were also deliv. ered to him, with sacred ornaments of the temple not a few; which things thus delivered to Titus, obtained of him for this man the same pardon that he had allowed to such as deserted of their own accord.

4. And now were the banke finished, on the seventh day of the month Gorpeius [Elul) in eighteen days time, when the Romans brought their machines against the wall. But, for the seditious, some of them as despairing of saving the city, retired from the wall to the citadel ; others of them went down into the subterranean vaults, though still a great many of them defended themselves against those that brought the engines for the battery : yet did the Romans overcome them by their number, and by their strength and, what was the principal thing of all, by going cheerfully about their work, while the Jews were quite dejected, and become weak. Now, as soon as a part of the wall was battered down, and certain of the towers yielded to the impression of the battering-rams, those that opposed themselves fled away, and such a terror fell upon the tyrants, as was much greater than the occasion required; for before the enemy got ever the hreach, they were quite stunned, and were immediately for flying away. And now, one might see these men, who had hitherto been so insolent and arrogant in their wicked practices, to be cast down, and to tremble, insomuch that it would pity one's heart to observe the change that was made in those vile persons. Accordingly, they ran with great violence upon the Roman wall that en

* These various sorts of spices, even more than those four which Moses prescribed. Exod. xxxi. 34. we see were used in the public srorslinder He. rod's temple, particularly civnimon and assi!: which Roland takes pai's, ticular notice of, as agreeing with the latter testimony of the Talmudists.

compassed them, in order to force away those that guarded it, and to break through it, and get away. But, when they saw that those who had formerly been faithful to them had gone away, (as indeed they were led whithersoever the great distress they were in persuaded them to flee;) as also, when those that came running before the rest, told them that the western wall was quite overthrown, while others said the Romans were gotten in, and others, that they were near, and looking out for them, which were only the dictates of their fear, which imposed upon their sight, they fell upon their face, and greatly lamented their own mad conduct : and their nerves were so terribly loosed, that they could not fee away And here one may chiefly reflect on the power of God exercised upon these wicked wretches, and on the good fortune of the Romans ; for these ty. rants did now wholly deprive themselves of the security they had in their own power, and came down from those very towers of their own accord, wherein they could never have been taken by force, nor indeed any other way than by famine. And thus did the Romans, when they had taken such great pains about weaker walls, get by good for. tune what they could never have gotten by their engines ; for three of these towers were too strong for all mechanical engines whatsoever, concerning which we have treated above.

5. So they now left these towers of themselves, or rather they were ejected out of them by God himself, and fled immediately to that valley which was under Siloam, where they again recovered themselves out of the dread they were in for a while, and ran violently against that part of the Roman wall which lay on that side ; but, as their courage was too much depressed to make their attacks with suffi. cient force, and their power was now broken with fear and affliction, they were repulsed by the guards, and dispersing themselves at distances from each other, went down into the subterranean cayerns. So the Romans being now become masters of the walls, they both placed their ensigns upon the towers, and made joyful acclamations for the victory they had gained, as having found the end of this war much lighter than its beginning; for, when they had gotten upon the last wall, without any bloodshed, they could hardly believe what they found to be true ; but seeing nobody to oppose them, they stood in doubt yhat such an un

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