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mans, put on a white frock, and buttoned upon him a purple cloak, and appeared out of the ground in the place where the temple had formerly been. At the first, indeed, those that saw him were greatly astonished, and stood still where they were ; but afterward they came nearer to him, and asked him who he was ? Now Simon would not tell them, but bid them call for their captain, and when they ran to call him, Terentius Rufus, * who was left to command the army there, came to Simon, and learned of him the whole truth, and kept him in bonds, and let Cæsar know that he was taken. Thus did God bring this man to be punished, for what bitter and savage tyranny he had exercised against his countrymen, by those who were his worst enemies ; and this while he was not subdued by violence, but voluntarily delivered himself up to them to be punished, and that on the very same account that he had laid false accusations against many Jews as if they were falling away to the Romans, and had barbarously slain them; for wicked actions do not escape the divine danger, nor is justice too weak to punish offenders, but in time overtakes those that transgress its laws, and inflicts its punishment upon the wicked in a manner so much more severe as they expected to escape it, on account of their not being punished immediately. f Simon was made sensible of this by falling under the indignation of the Romans. This rise of his out of the ground did also occasion the discovery of a great number of others of the seditious at that time, who had hidden themselves under ground. But for Simon, he was brought to Cæsar in bonds, when he was come back to that Cæsarea which was on the sea-side ; who gave order that he should be kept against that triumph which he was to celebrate at Rome upon this occasion.

* This Terentius Rufus, as Reland in part observes here, is the same peron whom the Talmudists call Turnus Rufus, of whom they relate, that he ploughed up Sion as a field. and made Jerusalem become as heaps, and the mountains of the house as the high places of a forest; which was long before foretold by the prophet Micah, jii. 12. and quoted from him in the praphecies of Jeremiah, xxvi. 18.

of See Eccles. viii. 11.


How Titus, upon the celebration of his brother's and father's birth

days, had many of the Jew's slain. Concerning the danger the Jews were in at Antioch by means of the transgression and impity of one Antiochus a Jew.

$ 1. WHILE Titus was at Cæsarea, he solemnized the birth-day of his brother (Domitian? after a splendid manner, and inflicted a great deal of the punishinent intended for the Jews in honour of him ; for the number of those that were now slain in fighting with the beasts, and were burnt, and fought with one another, exceeded two thousand five hundred. Yet did all this seem to the Romans, when they were thus destroyed ten thousand several ways, to be a punishment beneath their deserts. After this, Cæsar came to Berytus, * which is a city of Phænicia, and a Roman colony, and staid there a longer time, and exhibited a still more pompous solemnity about his father's birth-day, both in the magnificence of the shews, and in the other vast expenses he was at in his devices thereto belonging, so that a great multitude of the captives were here destroyed after the same manner as before.

2. It happened also about this time, that the Jews who remained at Antioch were under accusations, and in danger of perishing, from the disturbances that were raised against them by the Antiochians, and this both on account of the slanders spread abroad at this time against them, and on account of what pranks they had played not long before; which I am obliged to describe without fail, though briefly, that I may the better connect my narration of future actions with those that went before.

3. For, as the Jewish nation is widely dispersed over all the habitable earth among its inhabitants, so is it very much intermingled with Syria, by reason of its neighbourhood, and had the greatest multitudes in Antioch, by rea

* This Berytus was certainly a Roman colony, and has coins extant that witness the same, as Hudson and Spanheim inform us. See the note on AnLiq. B. xvi, ch, xi. 1. vol. ij.

son of the largeness of the city, wherein the kings, after Antiochus, had afforded them an habitation with the most indisturbed tranquility; for, though Antiochus, who was cal. led Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves ; and, as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple * gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby after a sort brought them to be a portion of their own body. But, about this time, when the present war began, Vespasian was newly sailed to Syria, and all men had taken up a great hatred against the Jews, then it was that a certain person, whose name was Antiochus, being one of the Jewish nation, and greatly respected on account of his father, who was governer + of the Jews at Antioch, came upon the theatre at a time when the people of Antioch were assembled together and became an informer against his father, and accused both him and others, that they had resolved to burn the whole city in one night ; he also delivered up to them some Jews that were foreigners, as partners in their resolutions. When the people heard this, they could not refrain their passion, but commanded that those who were delivered up to them should have fire brought to burn them; who were accordingly all burnt up. on the theatre immediately. They did also fall violently upon the multitude of the Jews, as supposing that, by punishing them suddenly, they should save their own city. As for Antiochus, he aggravated the rage they were in, and thought to give them a demonstration of his own con

* i.e. Their synagogues. See the vote on B. vi. ch x. !..

† The Jews at Antioch and Alexandria, the two principal cities in all the east, had allowed them, both by the Macedonians, and afterward by the Romaps, a governor of their own, who was exempt from the jurisdiction of the other civil governors. He was called sometimes barely governor, some times ethnarch, and, fat Alexandria alabarch, as Dr. Hudson takes notice on this place out of Fuller's Miscellanies. They had the like governor or governors allowed them at Bahylon under their captivity there, as the history of Susanna implies,

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version, and of his hatred of the Jewish customs, by sa crificing after the manner of the Greek:; he persuaded the rest also to compel them to do the same, because they would by that means discover who they were that had plotted against them since they would not do so; and when the people of Antioch tried the experiment, some few complied, but those that would not do so were slain. As for Antiochus himself, he obtained soldiers from the Roman commander, and became a severe master over his own citizens, not perinitting them to rest on the seventh day, but forcing them to do all that they usually did on other days; and to that degree of distress did he reduce them in this matter, that the rest of the seventh day was dissolved not only at Antioch, but the same thing which took thence its rise, was done in other cities also, in like manner, for some small time.

4. Now, after these misfortunes had happened to the Jews at Antioch, a second calamity befel them, the description of which when we were going about, we premised the account foregoing ; for, upon this accident, whereby the four-square market-place was burnt down, as well as the archieves, and the place where the public records were preserved, and the royal palaces, (and it was not without difficulty that the fire was then put a stop to, which was likely, by the fury wherewith it was carried along, to have gone over the whole city), Antiochus accused the Jews as the occasion of all the mischief that was done. Now, this induced the people of Antioch, who were now under the immediate persuasion, by reason of the disorder they were in, that this calumny was true, and would have been under the same persuasion, even though they had not borne an ill-will at the Jews before, to believe this man's accusation, especially when they considered what had been done before, and this to such a degree, that they all fell violent. ly upon those that were accused, and this like madmen, in a very furious rage also, even as if they had seen the Jews in a manner setting fire themselves to the city ; nor was it without difficulty that one Cneas Collegas, the legate, could prevail with them to permit the affairs to be laid before Cæsar; for as to Cecennius Petus, the president of Syria, Vespasian had already sent him away; and so it happened, that he was not yet come back thither. But when Collegas had made a careful inquiry about the matter, he

found out the truth, and that not one of those Jews that were accused by Antiochus had any hand in it, but that all was done by some vile persons greatly in debt, who supposed that if they could once set fire to the market-place, and burn the public records, they should have no farther demaods made upon them. So the Jews were under great disorder and terror, in the uncertain expectations of what would be the upshot of these accusations against them..


How Vespasian was received at Rome ; as also how the Germans re

volted from the Romans, but were subdued. That the Samaritans over-ran Mysia, but were compelled to return to their own country again.

8 1. And now Titus Cæsar, upon the news that was brought him concerning his father, that his coming was much desired by all the Italian cities, and that Rome especially received him with great alacrity and splendour, betook, himself to rejoicing and pleasures to a great degree, as now freed from the solicitude he had been under, after the most agreeble manner. For all men that were in Italy shewed their respects to him in their minds, before he came thither, as if he were already come, as esteeming the very expectation they had of him to be his real presence, on account of the great desires they had to see him, and be cause the good-will they bore him was entirely free and unconstrained; for it was a desirable thing to the senate, who well remembered the calamities they had undergone in the late changes of their governors, to receive a governor who was adorned with the gravity of old age, and with the highest skill in the actions of war, whose advancement would be, as they knew, for nothing else but for the preservation of those that were to be governed. Moreover the people had been so harassed by their civil miseries, that they were still more earnest for his coming immediately, as supposiug they should then be firmly delivered from their calamities, and believed they should then recover their sem cure tranquility and prosperity ; and for the soldiery, they had the principal regard to him, for they were chiefly appri. sed of his great exploits in war; and since they had ex:


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