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mans, put on a white frock, and buttoned upon him a purple cloak, and appeared out of the ground in the place "where the temple had formerly been. At the first, indeed, those that saw him were greatly astonished, and stood still 'where they were; but afterward they came nearer to him, and asked him who he was? Now Simon would not tell them, but bid them call for their captain, and when they ran to call him, Terentius Rufus,* who was left to command the army there, came to Simon, and learned of him the whole truth, and kept him in bonds, and let Cn sar know that he was taken. Thus did God bring this man to be punished, for what bitter and savage tyranny he had exercised against his countrymen, by those who were his worst enemies; and this while he was not subdued by violence, but voluntarily delivered himself up to them to be punished, and that on the very same account that he had laid false accusations against many Jews as if they were falling away to the Romans, and had barbarously slain them; for wicked actions do not escape the divine danger, nor is justice too weak to punish offenders, but in time overtakes those that transgress its laws, and inflicts its punishment upon the wicked in a manner so much more severe as they expected to escape it, on account of their not being punished immediately, f Simon was made sensible of this by falling under the indignation of the Romans. This rise of his out of the ground did also occasion the discovery of a great number of others of the seditious at that time, who had hidden themselves under ground. But for Simon, he was brought to Caesar in bonds, when he was come back to that Csesarea which was on the sea-side; who gave order that he should be kept against that triumph which he was to celebrate at Rome upon this occasion

* This Terentius Rufus, as Reland in part observes here, is the same person whom the Talmudists call Turnus Rufus. of whom they relate, that he ploughed up Sion as afield, and made Jerusalem become as heaps, and the mountains of the house as the high places of a forest; which was long before foretold by the prophet Micah, iii. 12. and quoted from him. in the prophecies of Jeremiah, xxvi, 18.

t See Eccles, viii, 11.

c

CHAl» III.

How Titus, upon the celebration of his brother's and father's birthdays, had many of the lews slain. Concerning the danger the Jew* were in at Antioch by means of the transgression and impity of one Antiochus a Jew.

§ 1. While Titus was at Caesarea, he solemnized the birth-day of his brother [Domitianl after a splendid manner, and inflicted a great deal of the punishment intended for the Jews in honour of him; for the number of those that were now slain in fighting with the beasts, and were burnt, and fought with one another, exceeded two thousand five hundred. Yet did all this seem to the Romans, when they were thus destroyed ten thousand several ways, to be a punishment beneath their deserts. After this, Ca;sar came to Berytus,* which is a city of Phoenicia, and a Roman colony, and staid there a longer time, and exhibited a still more pompous solemnity about his father's birth-day, both in the magnificence of the shews, and in the other vast expenses he was at in his devices thereto belonging, so that a great multitude of the captives were here destroyed after the same manner as before.

2. It happened also about this time, that the Jews who remained at Antioch were under accusations, and in danger of perishing, from the disturbances that were raised against them by the Antiochians, and this both on account of the slanders spread abroad at this time against them, and on account of what pranks they had played not long before; which 1 am obliged to describe without fail, though briefly, that I may the better connect my narration of future actions with those that went before.

3. For, as the Jewish nation is widely dispersed over all the habitable earth among its inhabitants, so is it very much intermingled with Syria, by reason of its neighbourhood, and had the greatest multitudps in Antioch, by rea

* This Berytus was certainly a Roman colony, and hns coins exfant that witness the same, as Hudson and Spanlieim inform us. See the note on -Vtjiji). B. xvi, ch, xi. 5 l, vol. Hi.

still of the largeness of the city, wherein the kings, after Antiochus, had afforded them an habitation with the most Undisturbed tranquility ; for, though Antiochus, who was called Epiphancs, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; and, as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple * gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby after a sort brought them to be a portion of their own body. But, about this time, when the present war began, Vespasian was newly sailed to Syria, and all men had taken up a great hatred against the Jews, then it was that a certain person, whose name was Antiochus, being one of the Jewish nation, and greatly respected on account of his father, who was governer f of the Jews at Antiorh, came upon the theatre at a time when the people of Antioch were assembled together and became an informer against his father, and accused both him and others, that they had resolved to burn the whole city in one night; he also delivered up to them some Jews that were foreigners, as partners in their resolutions. When the people heard this, they could not refrain iheir passion, but commanded that thone who were delivered up to them should have fire brought to burn them; who were accordingly all burnt upon the theatre immediately. They did also fall violently upon the multitude of the Jews, as supposing that, by punishing them suddenly, they should save their own city. As for Antiochus, he aggravated the rage they were in, and thought to give them a demonstration of his own con

* i. e. Their synagogues. See the note ou B. vi. ch x. 5 1.

t The Jews at Antioch and Alexandria, the two principal cities in all the east, had allowed them, both by the Macedonians, and afterward by the Romans, a governor of their own, who was exempt from the jurisdiction of the other civ il governors. He was called sometimes barely governor, sometimes ethnarch, and, [at Alexandria] alabarch, as Dr. Hudson takes noticeoo this place out of Fuller's Miscellanies. They had the like governor or governors allowed them at Babylon under their captivity there, as the history of Susanna implies.

version, and of his hatred of the Jewish customs, by sacrificing after the maimer of the Greeks; he persuaded the rest also to compel them to do the same, because they would by that means discover who they were that had plotted against them since they would not do so; and when the people of Antioch tried the experiment, some few complied, but those that would not do so were slain. As for Antiochus himself, he obtained soldiers from the Roman commander, and became a severe master over his own citizens, not permitting them to rest Oh the seventh day, but forcing them to do all that they usually did on other days; and to that degree ot distress did he reduce them in this matter, that the rest of the seventh day was dissolved not only at Antioch, but the same thing which took thence its rise, was done in other cities also, in like manner, for some small time.

4. Now, after these misfortunes had happened to the Jews at Antioch, a second calamity befel them, the description of which when we were going about, we premised the account foregoing; for, upon this accident, whereby the four-square market-place was burnt down, as well as the archieves, and the place where the public records were preserved, and the royal palaces, (and it was not without difficulty that the fire was then put a stop to, which was likely, by the fury wherewith it was carried along, to have gone over the whole city), Antiochus accused the Jews as the occasion of all the mischief that was done. Now, this induced the people of Antioch, who were now under the immediate persuasion, by reason of the disorder they w ere in, that this calumny was true, and would have been under the same persuasion, even though they had not borne an ill-will at the Jews before, to believe this man's accusation, especially when they considered what had been done before, and this to such a degree, that they all fell violently upon those that were accused, and this like madmen, in a very furious rage also, even as if they had seen the Jews in a manner setting fire themselves to the city; nor was it without difficulty that one Cneas Collegas, the legate, could prevail with them to permit the affairs to be laid before Caesar; for as to Cecennius Petus, the president of Syria, Vespasian had already' sent him away; and so it happened, that he was not > et come back thither. But when Collegas had made a careful inquiry about the matter, he found out the truth, and that not one of those Jews that were accused by Antiochus had any hand in it, but that all was done by some vile persons greatly in debt, who supposed that if they could once set fire to the market-place, and burn the public records, they should have no farther demands made upon them. So the Jews were under great disorder and terror, in the uncertain expectations of what would be the upshot of these accusations against them.

CHAP. IV.

How Vespasian was received at Rome; as also how the Germans revolted from the Romans, but were subdued. That the Samaritans over-ran Mysia, but were compelled to return to their own country again.

§ 1. And now Titus Caesar, upon the news that was brought him concerning his father, that his coming was much desired by all the Italian cities, and that Rome especially received him with great alacrity and splendour, betook, himself to rejoicing aod pleasures to a great degree, as now freed from the solicitude he had been under, after the most agreeble manner. For all men that were in Italy shewed their respects to him in their minds, before he came thither, as if he were already come, as esteeming the very expectation they had of him to be his real presence, on account of the great desires they had to see him, and because the good-will they bore him was entirely free and unconstrained; for it was a desirable thing to the senate, who well remembered the calamities they had undergone in the late changes of their governors, to receive a governor who was adorned with the gravity of old age, and with the highest skill in the actions of-war, whose advancement would be, as they knew, for nothing else but for the preservation of those that were to be governed. Moreover the people had been so harassed by their civil miseries, that they were still more earnest for his coming immediately, as supposing they should then be firmly delivered from their calamities, and believed they should then recover their secure tranquility and prosperity; and for the soldiery, they had the principal regard to him, for they were chiefly apprised of his great exploits in war; and since they had ey

Vot>. vir. M

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