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perienced the want of skill and want of courage in other commanders, they were very desirous to be freed from that great shame they had undergone by their means, and heartily wished to receive such a prince as might be a security and an ornament to ihem. And, as Ihis good-will to Vespasian was universal, those that enjoyed any remarkable dignities could not have patience enough to stay in Rome, but made haste to meet him at a very great distance from it: nay, indeed, none of the rest could endure the delay of seeing him, but did all pour out of the city in such crowds, and were so universally possessed with the opinion, that it was easier and better for them to go out than to stay theres that this was the very first time that the city joyfully perceived itself almost empty of its citizens; for those that staid within were fewer than those that went out. But as soon as the news was come that he was hard by, and those that had met him at first related with what good-humour he received every one that came to him, then it was that the whole multitude that had remained in the city, with their wives and children, came into the road, and waited for him there; and for those whom he passed by, they made all sorts of acclamations on account of the joy they had to see him, and the pleasantness of his countenance, and styled him their benefactor and saviour, and the only person who was worthy to be ruler of the city of Rome. And now the city was like a temple full of garlands and sweet odours; nor was it easy for him to come to the royal palace, for the multitude of the people that stood about him, 'where yet at last he performed his sacrifices of thanksgiving to his houschold gods, for his safe return to that city. The multitude did also betake themselves to feasting J which feasts and drink-offerings, they celebrated by their tribes, and their families, and their neighbourhoods and still prayed God to grant, that Vespasian, his sons, and all their posterity might continue in the Roman government for a very long time, and that his dominion might be preserved from all opposition. And this was the manner in 'which Rome so joyfully received Vespasian, and thence grew immediately into a state of great prosperity.
2. But, before this time, and while Vespasian was about Alexandria, and Titus was lying at the siege of Jerusalem, 'a great multitude of the Germans were in commotion, and tended to rebellion; and) as the Gauls in their neighbour* hood joined with them, they conspired together, and had thereby great hopes of success, and that they should free themselves from the dominion of the Romans. The motives that induced the Germans to this attempt for a revolt, and for beginning the war, were these; In the first place, the nature (.of the people,] which was destitute of just reasonings, and ready to throw themselves rashly into danger upon small hopes; in the next place, the hatred they bore to those that were their governors, while their nation had never been conscious of subjection to any but to the Romans, and that by compulsion only. Besides these motives, it was the opportunity that now offered itself, which above all the rest prevailed with them so to do; for, when they eaw the Roman government in a great internal disorder, by the continual changes of its rulers, and understood that every part of the habitable earth under them was in an unsettled and tottering condition, they thought this was the best opportunity that could afford itself for themselves to make a sedition, when the state of the Romans was so ill. Classicus* also and Vitellius,f two of their commanders, puffed them up with such hopes. These had, for a long time, been openly desirous of such an innovation, and were induced by the present opportunity to venture upon the declaration of their sentiments; the multitude was also ready, and when these men told them of what they intended to attempt, that news was gladly received by them. So, when a great part of the Germans had agreed to rebel, and the rest were no better disposed, Vespasian as guided by divine Providence, sent letters to Petilius Cerealis, who had formerly had the command of Germany, whereby he declared him to have the dignity of consul, and commanded
* This Classicus and Civilis, and Cerealis, are names well known in Tacitns: the two former as moving sedition against the Romans, and the last as sent to repress thein by Vespasian, just as they are here described in Josephus; which is the case alsn of Fonteius Agrippa, and Rubrius Gallus in | 3. But, as to the very favourable acconnt presently given of Domitian, particularly as to his designs in this hi* Gallic and German expedition, it is not a little contrary to that in Suetonius, Vesp. 5 7. Nor are the reasons unobvioui that might occasion this great diversity: Domitian was one of Josephus's patrons and when he published these books of the Jewish war, he was very young, and had hardly began those wicked practices which rendered him so infamous afterward ; whileSnetoniusseems tohave been too young, and too low in life to receive any remarkable favours from him; as Domitian was certainly very lewd and cruel, and generally hated when Suetonius wrote about him. ,
} Civilis. Tacit.
him to take upon him the government of Britain; so he went whither he was ordered to go, and when he was informed of the revolt of the Germans, he fell upon them as soon as they were gotten together, and put his army in battle-array, and slew a great multitude of them in the fight, and forced them to leave off" their madness, and to grow wiser; nay, had he not fallen thus suddenly upon them on the place, it had not been long ere they would, however, have been brought to punishment; for, as soon as ever the news of their revolt was come to Rome, and Caesar Domitian was made acquainted with it, he made no delay even at that his age, when he was exceeding young, but undertook this weighty affair. He had a courageous mind from his father, and had made greater improvements than belonged to such an age: accordingly, he marched against the barbarians immediately; whereupon, their hearts failed them at the very rumour of his approach, and they submitted themselves to him with fear, and thought it an happy thing that they were brought under their old yoke again without suffering any farther mischiefs. When therefore Domitian had settled all the affairs of Gaul in such good order, that it would not be easily put into disorder any more, he returned to Rome with honour and glory, as having performed such exploits as were above his own age, Wilt worthy of so great a farther.
3. At the very same time with the forementioned revolt of the German:, did the bold attempt of the Scythians against the Romans concur; for those Scythians who are called Sarmulians, being a very numerous people, transported themselves over the Danube into Mysia, without being perceived; after which, by their violence and entirely unexpected assault, they slew a great many of the Romans that guarded the frontiers; and, as the consular legate Fonteius Agrippa came to meet them, and fought courageously against them, he was slain by them. They then over-ran all the region that had been subject to him, tearing and rending every thing that fell in their way. But when Vespasian was informed of what had happended, and how Mysia was laid waste, he sent away Rubruis Callus to punish these Sarmatians; by whose means many of them perished in the battles he fought against them, and that part which escaped fled with fear to their own country. So, when this general had put an end to the war, he provided for the future security of the country also; for ha placed more and more numerous garrisons in the place, till he made it altogether impossible for the barbarians to pass over the river any more. And thus had this war in Mysia a sudden conclusion.
Concerning the Sabbatic river, which Titus saw as he was journeying through Syria; and how the people of Antiocb came with a petition to Titus against the Jews, but were rejected by him ; as also concerning Titus' and Vespasian's triumph.
§ 1. Now Titus Ceesar tarried some time at Berytus, as we told you before. He thence removed, and exhibited magnificent shews in all those cities of Syria through which he went, and made use of the captive Jews as public instances of the destruction of that nation. He then saw a river as he went along, of such a nature as deserves to be recor. ded in history: it runs in the middle between Arcea, belonging to Agrippa's kingdom, and Raphanea. It hath somewhat very peculiar in it: for, when it runs, its current is strong, and has plenty of water; after which its springs fail for six days together, and leave its channel dry, as any one may see; after which days it runs on the seventh day as it did before, and as though it had undergone no change at all; it hath also been observed to keep this order perpetually and exactly: whence it is that they call it the Sabbatic river, * that name being taken from the sacred seventh day among the Jews.
2. But, when the people of Antioch were informed that Titus was approaching, they were sp glad at it that they could not keep within their' walls, but hasted away to give him the meeting; nay, they proceeded as far as thirty furlongs, and more, with that intention. These
* Since in these latter ages this Sabbatic river, once so famous, which, by Josephus's account here, ran every seventh, day, aud rested on sir, but according to Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxi. 11. ran perpetually on six days, and rested every seventh, (though it no way appears by either of their accotfnts, that the seventh day of this river was the Jewish seventh day or Sabbath), is quite .vanished, 1 shall say no more about it; only see Dr. Hudson's note In Varenius's Geography, 1. 17. the reader will 6nd several instances of such periodical fountains and rivers, though none of their period were that of a just week, as of old this appears to have been.
were not the men only, but a multitude of women also, with their children, did the same; and when they saw him coming up to them, they stood on both sides of the way, andstretched out their right hands, saluting him, and making all sorts of acclamations to him, and turned back together with him. They also, among all the acclamations they made to him, besought him all the way they went to eject the Jews out of their city: yet did not Titus at all yield to this their petition, but gave them the bare hearing of it quietly. However, the Jews were in a great deal of terrible fear under the uncertainty they were in what his opinion was, and what he would do to them. For Titus did not stay at Antioch, but continued his progress immediately to Zeugma, which lies upon the Euphrates, whither came to him messengers from Vologeses king of Parthia, and brought him a crown of gold upon the victory he had gained over the Jews; which he accepted of, and feasted the king's messengers, and then came back to Antioch. And when the senate and people of Antioch earnestly entreated him to come upon their theatre, were their whole multitude was assembled, and expected him, he complied with great humanity; but when they pressed him with much earnestness, and continually begged of him, that he would eject the Jews out of their city, he gave them this very pertinent answer, "How can this be done, since "that country of theirs, whither the Jews must be obli"ged then to retire, is destroyed, and no place will re"ceive them besides." Whereupon the people of Antioch-, when they had failed of success in this their first request, made him a second; for they desired that he would order those tables of brass to be removed, on which the Jews' privileges were engraven. However, Titus would not grant that neither, but permitted the Jews of Antioch, to continue to eujow the very same privileges in that city which they had before, and then departed for Egypt; and, as he came to Jerusalem in his progress, and compared the melancholy condition he saw it then in with the ancient glory of the city, and called to mind the greatness of its present ruins, as well as its ancient splendour, he could not but pity the destruction of the city, so far was he fromb oastiug, that so great and goodly a city as that was, had been by him taken by force; nay, he frequently cursed those that had been the authors of their revolt, and had brought such a punishment upon the city; insomuch, that it openly ap