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peared, that he did not desire that such a calamity as this punishment of theirs amounted to, should be a demonstration of his courage. Yet was there no small quantity of the riches that had been in that city still found among its ruins, a great deal of which the Romans dug up ; but the greatest : part was discovered by those who were captives, and so they carried it away ; I mean the gold and the silver, and the rest of that most precious furniture which the Jews had, and which the owners had treasured up under ground against the uncertain fortunes of war.
3. So 'Titus took the journey he intended to Egypt, and passed over the desert very suddenly, and came to Alexandria, and took up a resolution to go to Rome by sea. And, as he was accompanied by two legions, he sent each of them again to the places whence they had before come ; the fifth he sent to Mysia, and the fifteenth to Pannonia ; as for the leaders of the captives, Simon and John, with the other seven hundred men, whom he had selected out of the rest, as being eminently tall and handsome of body, he gaye order that they should be soon carried to Italy, as resolving to produce them in his triumph. So, when he had had a prosperous voyage to his mind, the city of Rome behaved itself in his reception, and their meeting him at a distance, as it did in the case of his father. But what made the most splendid appearance in Titus's opinion was, when his father met him, and received him ; but still the multitude of the citizens conceived the greatest joy when they saw them all three * together, as they did at this time: nor were many days overpast, when they determined to have but one triumph, that should be common to both of them, on account of the glorious exploits they had performed, although the senate had decreed each of them a separate triumph by himself. So, when notice had been given beforehand of the day appointed for this pompous solemnity to be made on account of their victories, not one of the immense multitude was left in the city, but every body went out so far as to gain only a station where they might stand, and left only such a passage as was necessary for those that were to be seen to go along it.
4. Now, all the soldiery marched out beforehand, by companies, and in their several ranks, under their several
* Vespasian, and his two sons Titus and Domitian.
commanders, in the night-time, and were about the gates, not of the upper palaces, but those near the temple of Isis; for there it was that the emperors had rested the foregoing night. And, as soon as ever it was day, Vespasian and Titus came out, crowned with laurel, and clothed in those ancient purple habits which were proper lo their family, and then went as far as Octavian's walks: for there it was that the senate, and the principal rulers, and those that had been recorded as of the equestrian order, waited for them. Now a tribunal had been erected before the cloisters, and ivory chairs had been set upon it, when they came and sat down upon them, whereupon the soldiery made an acclamation of joy to them immediately, and all gave them attestations of their valour; while they were themselves without their arms, and only in their silken garments, and crowned with laurel; then Vespasian accepted of these siiouts of theirs : but while they were still disposed to go on in such acclamations he gave them a signal of silence. And when every body entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers : the like prayers did Titus put up also : after which prayers, Vespasian made a short speech to all the people, and then sent away the soldiers to a dinner prepared for them by the emperors. Then did he retire to that gate which was cal. led the Gate of the Pomp, because pompous shews do al. ways go through that gate; there it was that they tasted some food and when they had put on their triumphal garments, and had offered sacrifices to the gods that were placed at the gate, they sent the triumph forward, and marched through the theatres that they might be the more easily seen by the multitudes.
5. Now, it is impossible to describe the multitude of the shews as they deserve, and the magnificence of them all; such, indeed as a man could not easily think of, as performed either by the labour of workmen, or the variety of riches, or the rarities of nature : for almost all such curi. osities as the most happy men ever get by piece-meal, were here one heaped on another, and those both admirable and costly in their nature; and, as all brought together on that day, demonstrated the vastness of the dominions of the Romans; for there was here to be seen a mighty quantity of silver, and gold, and ivory, contrived into all sorts
of things, and did not appear as carried along in pompous shew only, but, as a man may say, running along like a river. Some parts were composed of the rarest purple hangings, and so carried along, and others accurately represented to the life what was embroidered by the art of the Babylonians. There were also precious stones that were transparent, some set in crowds of gold, and some in other ouches, as the workmen pleased; and of these such a vast number were brought, that we could not but thence learn how vainly we imagined any of them to be rarities. The images of the gods were also carried, being as well wonderful for their largeness, as made very artificially, and with great skill of the workmen : nor were any of these images of any other than very costly materials; and many species of animals were brought, every one in their own natural ornaments. The men also, who brought every one of these shews were great multitudes, and adorned with purple garments, all over interwoven with gold; those that were chosen for carrying these pompous shews having also about them such magnificent ornaments as were both extraordinary and surprising, Besides these, one might see, that even the great number of the captives was not unadorned, while the variety that was in their garments, and their fine texture, concealed from the sight the deformity of their bodies. But, what afforded the greatest surprise of all was, the structure of the pageants that were borne along; for, indeed, he that met them could not but be afraid that the bearers would not be able firmly enough to support thiem, such was their magnitude: for many of them were so made, that they were on three or even four storeys one above another. The magnificence also of their structure afforded one both pleasure and surprise; for, upon many of them were laid carpets of gold. There was also wrought gold, and ivory fastened about them all; and many resemblances of the war, and those in several ways, and variety of contrivances, affording a most lively portraiture of itself. For their was to be seen an happy country laid waste and entire squadrons of enemies slain ; while some of them ranaway, and some were carried into captivity, with walls of great altitude and magnitude overthrown, and ruined by machines, with the strongest fortifications taken and the walls of most populous cities upon the tops of hills seized on, and an army pouring itself with. in the walls; as also every place full of slaughter, and sup. plications of the enemies, when they were no longer able to lift up their hands in way of opposition. Fire also sent upon temples was here represented, and houses overthrown, and falling upon their owners :-rivers also, after they came out of a large and melancholy desert, ran down, not into a land cultivated nor as drink for men, or for cattle, but through a land still on fire upon every side; for the Jews related that such a thing they had undergone during this war. Now, the workmanship of those representations was so magnificent and lively in the construction of the things, that it exhibited what had been done to such as did not see it, as if they had been there really present. On the top of every one of these pageants was placed the commander of the city that was taken, and the inanner wherein he was taken. Moreover, there followed those pa. geants a great numher of ships; and, for the other spoils, they were carried in great plenty. But, for those * that were taken in the temple of Jerusalem, they made the greatest figure of them all; that is, the golden table, of the weight of many talents; the candlestick also, that was made of gold, though its construction were now changed from that which we made use of : for its middle shaft was fixed upon a basis, and the small branches were produced out of it to a great length, having the likeness of a trident in their position, and had every one a socket made of brass for a lamp at the tops of them. These lamps were in number seven, and represented the dignity of the number seven among the Jews; and the last of all the spoils, was carried the law of the Jews. After these spoils passed by a great many men, carrying the images of victory, whose structure was entirely either of ivory, or of gold. After which, Vespasian marched in the first place, and Titus fol. lowed him ; Domitian also rode along with them, and made
* See the representations of these_Jewish vessels, as they still stand on Titus's triumphal arch at Rome, in Reland's very curious book de Spolüs Templi, throughout. But what things are chiefly to be noted are these : (1.) That Josephus says, the candlestick here carried in this triumph was not thoroughly like that which was used in the temple, which appears in the number of the little knobs and flowers in that on the triumphal arch, not well agreeing with Moses' description, Exod. xxv. 31-36. (2.) The small, ness of the branches in Josephus, compared with the thickuess of those on that arch. (3.) That the Law or Pentateuch does not appear on that arch at all, though Josepbus, an eye-witness, assures us it was carried in this procession. Al wbich things descrve the consideration of the inquisitive reader.
à giorious appearance, and rode on a horse that was worthy of admiration.
6. Now, the last part of this pompous shew was at the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, whither, when they were come, they stood still ; for it was the Romans' ancient custom, to stay till somebody brought the news, that the general of the enemy was slain. This general was Simon the son of Gioras, who had then been led in this triumph among the captives : a rope had also been put upon his head, and he had been drawn unto a proper place in the forum, and had withal been tormented by those that drew him along; and the law of the Romans required that malefactors condemned to die should be slain there. Accordingly, when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had set up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the prayers used in such solemnities, which when they had finished, they went away to the palace. And, as for some of the spectators, the emperor's entertained them at their own feast; and, for all the rest there were noble preparations made for their feasting at home ; for this was a festival day to the city of Rome, as celebrated for the victory obtained by their army over their enemies, for the end that was now put to their civil miseries, and for the commencement of their hopes of future prosperity and happiness.
7. After these triumphs were over, and after the affairs of the Romans were settled on the surest foundations, Vespasian resolved to build a temple to Peace, which was tin. ished in so short a time, and so glorious a manner, as was : bevond all human expectation and opinion : for, he having now by Providence a vast quantity of wealth, besides what he had formerly gained in his other exploits, he had this temple adorned with pictures, and statues; for, in this temple was collected and reposited, all such rarities as men aforetime used to wander all over the habitable world to see, when they had a desire to see one of them after another : he also laid up therein those golden vessels and instruments that were taken out of the Jewish temple, as ensigns of his glory. But still he gave order that they should lay up their law, and the purple veils of the holy place, in the royal palace itself, and kept them there.