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private garments; for nobody but he that officiated hatt on his sacred garments: but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them, went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. The high-priest did also go up with them; not always indeed, but on the seventh days and new moons, and if any festivals belonging to our nation, which we celebrate every year, happened.—When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment round without seam, with fringe-work, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast, was embroidered with five rows of various colours, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colours, we told you before, the veils of the temple were embroidered also. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment: in these buttons were inclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardious, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribband, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name [of God]: it consists of four vowels. However, the high-priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God. And thus much concerning the city and the temple; but, for the customs and laws hereto relating we shall speak more accurately another time; for there remain a great many

things thereto relating, which have not been here touched upon.

8. Now, as to the tower of Antonia, it was situated at the corner of two cloisters of the court of the temple, of that on the west and that'on the north : it was erected upon a rock of fifty cubits in height, and was on a great precipice; it was the work of King Herod, wherein he demonstrated his natural magnanimity. In the first place, the rock itself was covered over with smooth pieces of stone, from its foundation, both for ornament, and that any one, who could either try to get up, or to go down it, might not be able to hold his feet upon it. Next to this, and before you come to the edifice of the tower itself there was a wall three cubits high; but within that wall all the space of the tower of Antonia itself was built upon, to the height of forty cubits. The inward parts had the largeness and form of a palace, it being parted into all kinds of rooms and other conveniencies, such as courts and places for bathing, and broad spa* ees for camps; insomuch that, by having all conveniences that cities wanted, it might seem to be composed of several cities, but by its magnificence it seemed a palace; and as the entire structure resembled that of a tower, it contained also four other distinct towers at its four corners; whereof the others were but fifty cubits high, whereas that which lay upon the south east corner was seventy cubits high, that from thence the whole temple might be viewed: but on the corner, where it joined to the two cloisters of the temple, it had passages down to them both, through which the guards (for there always lay in this tower a Roman legion) went several ways among the cloisters, with their arms, nu the Jewish festivals, in order to watch the people, that they might not there attempt to make any innovations; for the temple was a fortress that guarded the city, as was the tower of Antonia a guard to the temple; and in that tower were the guards * of those three. There was a peculiar fortress belonging to the upper city, which was Herod's palace; but, for the hill Bezetha, it was divided from the tower of Antonia, as we have already told you; and as that hill on which the tower of Antonia stood was the highest of these three, so did it adjoin to the new city, and was the only place that hindered the sight of the temple on the

* Those three gu rds that lay in the tower of Antonia must be those tha* guarded the city, the temple, and the tower of Antonio.

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north. And this shall suffice at present to have spoken about the city, and the walls about it, because I have purposed to myself to make a more accurate description of it elsewhere.

CHAP. VI.

Concerning the tyrants Simon and Judas. How also, as Titus was going round the wall of the city, Nicanor was wounded by a dart; which accident provoked Titus to press on the siege.

§ 1. Now the warlike men that were in the city, and the multitude of the seditious that were with Simon, were ten thousand besides the Idumeans. Those ten thousand had fifty commanders, over whom this Simon was supreme. The Idumeans that paid him homage were five thousand, and had eight commanders, among whom those of the greatest fame were Jacob the son of Sosas, and Simon the son of Cathlas. John, who had seized upon the temple had six thousand armed men under twenty commanders: the Zealots also that had come over to him, and left off their opposition, were two thousand four hundred, and had the same commander that they had formerly, Eleazar, together with Simon, the son of Arinus. Now, while these factions fought one against another, the people were their prey on both sides, as we have said already; and that part of the people, which would not join with them in their wicked practices, were plundered by both factions. Simon held the upper city, and the great wall as far as Cedron, and as much of the old wall as bent from Siloam to the east and which went down to the palace of Monobazus, who was king of the Adiabeni beyond Euphrates, he also held that fountain, and the Acra, which was no other than the lower city. He also held all that reached to the palace of Queen Helena, the mother of Monobazus. But John held the temple, and the parts thereto adjoining for a great way, as also Ophla, and the valley called the Valley of Cedron: and when the parts that were interposed between their possessions were burnt by them, they left a space wherein they might fight with each other: for this internal sedition did not cease, even when the Romans were encamped near their very walls. But, although they had grown wiser at th* first onset the Romans made upon them, this lasted but a while; for they returned to their former madness, and separated one from another, and fought it out, and did every thing that the besiegers could desire them to do; for they never suffered any thing that was worse from the Romans, than they made each other suffer; nor was there any misery endured by the city, after these men's actions, that could be esteemed new. But it was most of all unhappy before it was overthrown, while those that took it did it a great kindness; for 1 venture to affirm, that the sedition destroyed the city, and the Romans destroyed the sedition, which it was a much harder thing to do, than to destroy the walls; so that we must justly ascribe our misfortunes to our own people, and the just vengeance taken on them to the Romans; as to which matter, let every one determine by the actions on both sides.

2. Now, when affairs within the city were in this posture, Titus went round the city on the outside with some chosen horsemen, and looked about for a proper place where he might make an impression upon the walls; but as he was in doubt where he could possibly make an attack on any side, (for the place was no way accessible where the valleys were, and on the other side, the first wall appeared too strong to be shaken by the engines;) he thereupon thought it best to make an assult upon the monument of John the high priest; for there it was, that the first fortification was lower, and the second was not joined to it, the builders neglecting to build the wall strong where the new city was not much inhabited: here also was an easy passage to the third wall through which he thought to take the upper city, and, through the tower of Antonia, the temple itself. But at this time, as he was going round about the city, one of his friends, whose name was Nicanor, was wounded with a dart on his left shoulder, as he approached, together with Josephus, too near the wall, and attempted to discourse to those that were upon the wall about terms of peace; for he was a person known by them. On this account it was that Cajsar, as soon as he knew their vehemence, that they would not bear even such as approached them to persuade them to what tended to their own preservation, was provoked to press on the siege. He also, at the same time, gave his soldiers leave to set the suburbs, on fire, and ordered that they should bring timber together, and raise banks against the city; and, whendie Iiad parted his army into three parts, in order to set about those works, he placed those that shot darts, and the archers, in the midst of the banks that were then raising; before whom he placed those engines that threw javelins and darts, and stones that he might prevent the enemy from sallying out upon their works, and might hinder those that were upon the wall from being able to obstruct them. So the trees were now cut down immediately, and the suburbs left naked. But now, while the timber was carrying to raise the banks and the whole army was earnestly engaged in their works, the Jews were not, however, quiet; and it happened that the people of Jerusalem, who had been hitherto plundered and murdered, were now of good courage, and supposed they should have a breathing time, while the others were very busy in opposing their enemies without the city, and that they should now be avenged on those that had been the authors of their miseries, in case the Romans did but get the victory.

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3. However, John staid behiDd out of his fear of Simon, even while his own men were earnest in making a sally upon their enemies without. Yet did not Simon lie still, for he lay near the place of the siege: He brought his engines of war, and disposed of them at due distances upon the wall; both those which they took from Cestius formerly, and those which they got when they seized the garrison that lay in the tower Antonia. But, though they had these engines in their possession, they had so little skill in using them, that they were in great measure useless to them; but a few there were who had been taught by deserters how to use them, which they did use though after an awkward manner. So they cast stones and arrows at those that were making the banks: they also ran out upon them by, companies, and fought with them. Now, those that were at work, covered themselves with hurdles spread over their banks, and their engines were opposed to them when they made their excursions. These engines, that all the legions had ready prepared for them, were admirably contrived; but still more extraordinary ones belonged to the tenth legion: those that threw darts and those that threw stones were more forcible, and larger than the rest, by which they not only repelled the excursions of the Jews, but drove those away 'that were upon the walls also. Now, the stones that were

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