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was there at length any one of these men found who scrupled to act their part in this terrible execution, but every one of them dispatched his dearest relations. Miserable men indeed were they ! whose distress forced them to slay their dwn wives and children with their own hands, as the lightest of those evils that were before them. So they, being not able to bear the grief they were under for what they had done any longer, and esteeming it an injury to those they had slain, to live even the shortest space of time after them, they presently laid all they had upon a heap, and set fire to it. They then chose ten men by lot, out of them, to slay all the rest ; every one of which laid himself down by his wife and children, on the ground, and threw his arms about them; and they offered their necks to the stroke of those who by lot executed that melancholy office : and when these ten had, without fear, slain them all, they made the same rule for casting lots for themselves, that he whose lot it was should first kill the other nine. and after all should kill himself. Accordingly all these had courage sufficient to be no way behind one another in doing or suffering so for conclusion, the nine offered their necks to the executioner, and he who was the last of all took a view of all the other bodies, lest perchance some ow other among so many that were slain should want his assistance to he quite dispatched, and when he perceived that they were all slain, he set fire to the palace, and, with the great force of his hand, ran his sword entirely through himself, and fell down dead near to his own relations. So, these people died with this intention, that they would leave not so much as one soul among them all alive to be subject to the Romans. Yet was their an ancient woman, and another who was of kin to Eleazar, and superior to most women in pruldence and learning, with five children, who had concealed themselves in caverns under ground, and had carried water thither for their drink, and were hidden there when the rest were intent upon the slaughter of one another. Those others were nine hundred and sixty in number, the women and children being withall included in that computation. This calamitous slaughter was made on the fifteenth day of the month Xanthicus (Nisan.]

2. Now, for the Romans, they expected that they should be fought in the morning, when, accordingly they put on their armour, and laid bridges of planks upon their ladders from


their banks, to make an assault upon the fortress, which they did; but saw nobody as an enemy, but a terrible solitude upon every side, with a fire within the place, as well as a perfect silence. So, they were at a loss to guess at what had happened. At length they made a shout, as if it had been a blow given by the battering-ram, to try whether they could bring any one out that was within; the women heard this noise, and came out of their under ground cavern, and informed the Romans what had been done, as it was done, and the second of them clearly described ail, both what was said and what was done, and the manner of it, yet did they not easily give their attention to such a desperate undertaking, and did not believe it could be as they said ; they also attempted to put the fire out, and quickly cutting themselves away through it, they came within the palace, and so met with the multitude of the slain, but could take no pleasure in the fact, though it were dope to their enemies. Nor could they do other than wonder at the courage of their resolution, and the immoveable contempt of death which so great a number of them had shewn when they went through with such an action as that was.


That many of the Sicarii fled to Alexandria also, and what dangers

they were in there; on which account that temple which hail formerly been built by Onias, the high-priest, was destroyed.

§ 1. When Massada was thus taken, the general left a garrison in the fortress to keep it, and he himself went away to Cæsarea ; for there were now no enemies left in the country, but it was all overthrown by so long a war. Yet did this war afford disturbances and dangerous disorders even in places very far remote from Judea ; for still it came to pass, that many Jews were slain at Alexandria, in Egypt: for as many of the Sicarii as were able to fly thither, out of the seditious wars in Judea, were not content to have saved themselves, but must needs be undertaking to make new disturbances, and persuaded many of those that entertained them to assert their liberty, to esteem the Romans to be no better than themselves, and to look upon God as their only Lord and Master. But, when

part of the Jews of reputation opposed tbem; they slew some of them, and with the others they were very pressing in their exhortations to revolt from the Romans; but when the principal men of the senate saw what madness they were come to, they thought it no longer safe for themselves to overlook them. So they got all the Jews together to an assembly, and accused the madness of the Sicarii, and demonstrated that they had been the authors of all the evils that had come upon them. They said also, That “ these “ men, now they were runaway from Judea, having no sure “ hopes of escaping, because, as soon as ever they shall be 6 known, they will be soon destroyed by the Romans, they 6 come hither, and fill us full of those calamities which be6 long to them, while we have not been partakers with “ them in ady of their sins.” Accordingly, they exhorted the multitude to have a care, lest they should be brought to destruction by their means, and make their apology to the Romans for what had been done, by delivering these men up to them : who, being thus apprised of the greatness of the danger they were in, complied with what was proposed, and ran with great violence upon the Sicarii and seized upon them : and indeed six hundred of them were caught immediately ; but, as to those that had fled into Egypt,* and to the Egyptian Thebes, it was not long ere they were caught also and brought back whose courage, or whither we ought to call it madness, or hardiness, in their opinions, every body was amazed at. For, when all sorts of torments and vexations of their bodies, that could be devi. sed were made use of to them, they could not get any one of them to comply so far as to confess, or seem to confess, that Cæsar was their lord; but they preserved their own opinion, in spite of all the distress they were brought to, as if they received those torments, and the fire itself, with bodies insensible of pain, and with a soul that in a manner rejoiced under them. But what was most of all astonishing to the heholders, was the age of these children, for not onc of those children was so far overcome by these torments, as to name Cæsar for their lord. So far does the strength of the courage [of the soul] prevail over the weakness of the body,

* Since Josephus here informs us, that some of these Sicarii, or Ruffiians went from Alexandria, (which is of itself in Egypt, in a large sense,) into Egypt, and Thebes, there situated, Reland well observes from Vossius, that Egypt sometimes denotes Proper or Upper Egypt, as distinct from Desta,

he lower parts near Palestine. Accordingly, as he adds, those that say it never rains in Egypt, must mean the Proper or Upper Egypt, because at does sometimes rain in the other parts. See the notes on Antiq. B. ii, ch, vji. 7. and B. iii. ch. i. $ 6. vol.i.

2. Now Lupus did then govern Alexandria, who presently sent Cæsar word of this commotion ; who having in suspicion the restless temper of the Jews for innovation and being afraid lest they should get together again, and persuade some others to join with them, gave orders to Lupus to demolish that Jewish * temple which was in the region called Onion, and was in Egypt, which was built, and had its denomination from the occasion following : Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jews high-priests, fled from Antiochus, the king of Syria when he made war with the Jews, and came to Alexandria; and, as Ptolemy received nim very kindly, on account of his hatred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his assistance ; and when the king agreed to do it, as far as he was abie, he desired him to give him leave to build a temple somewhere in Egypt, and to worship God according to the customs of his own country ; for that the Jews would then be so much readier to fight against Antiochus, who had laid waste the temple at Jerusalem, and that they would then come to him with greater good-will, and that, by granting them liberty of conscience, very many of them would come over to him.

3. So Ptolemy complied with his proposals, and gave him a place f one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That Nomos was called the Nomos of Hcliopolis where Onias built a fortress, and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as resembled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of sixty cubits ; he

* Of this temple of Onias's building in Egypt, see the notes on Antiy B. xiii. ch. iii. $ 1. vol. iji But whereas it is elsewhere both of the War, B. i cb, i. 1. vol. v, and in the Antiquities as now quoted, said, that this temple was like to that at Jerusalem, and here that it was not like it, but like a tow. er, $ 3. there is some reason to suspect the reading here, and that either the negative particle is here t be blotted out, or the word entirely added.

† We must observe, that Josephus, here speaks of Antiochus, who pro faned the temple, as now alive, when Onias had leave given him by Philometor to build his t

s temple; whereas it seems not to have been actually built till about fifteen years afterwards. Yet because it is said in the Antiquities; that Onias weot to Philometor, B. xiii. ch ix. § 7. during the lifetiine of that Antiochus, it is probable he petitioned and perhaps obtained his leave theb, though it were not actually built or finished till fifteen years afterward.

wade the structure of the altar in imitation of that in our own country, and in like manner adorned with gifts, excepting the make of the candlestick, for he did not make a candlestick, but had a [single] lamp hammered out of a piece of gold, which illuminated the place with its rays, and which he hung by a chain of gold ; but the entire temple was encompassed with a wall of burnt brick, though it had gates of stone. The king also gave him a large country for a revenue in money, that both the priests might have a plentiful provision made for them, and that God might have great abundance of what things were necessary for his worship. Yet did not Onias do this out of a sober disposition, but he had a mind to contend with the Jews at Jerusalem, and could not forget the indignation he had for being banished thence. Accordingly, he thought that by building this temple, he should draw away a great number from them to himself. There had been also a certain ancient prediction made by (a prophet], whose name was Isaiah, about six hundred years before, that this temple should be built by a man that was a Jew in Egypt.* And this is the history of the building of that temple.

4. And now Lupus, the governor of Alexandria, upon the receipt of Cæsar's letter, came to the temple and carried out of it some of the donations dedicated thereto, and shut up the temple itself. And, as Lupus died a little afterward, Paulinus succeded him: This map left none of those donations there, and threatened the priests severely, if they did not bring them all out; nor did he permit any who were desirous ot' worshipping God there so much as to come near the whole sacred place. But, when he had shut up the gates, he made it entirely inaccessible insomuch that there remained no longer the least footsteps of any divine worship that had been in that place. Now, the duration of this time, from the building of this temple, till it was shut up again, was three hundred and forty-three years.

* Isa. xix. 18-23.

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