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“ dred thousand of the most warlike of them, against the “ enemy, who met them. Yet did he not join battle with “ them : but thinking that would be to fight against the « gods, he returned back, and came to Memphis where he “ took Apis and the other sacred animals which he had sent “ for to lim, and presently marched into Ethiopia, togeth" er with his whole army and multitude of Egyptians; for s the king of Ethiopia was under an obligation to him, on " which account he received him, and took care of all the " multitude that was with him, while the country supplied “all that was necessary for the food of the men. He also " allotted cities and villages for this exile, that was to be “ from its beginning during those fatally determined thir"teen years. Moreover, he pitched a camp for his Ethio“pian army, as a guard to king Amenophis, upon the “ borders of Egypt. And this was the state of things in “ Ethiopia. But, for the people of Jerusalem, when they “ came down together with the polluted Egyptians, they " treated the men in such a baabarous manner, that those 6 who saw how they subdued the forementioned country, " and the horrid wickedness they were guilty of, thought “it the most dreadful thing ; for they did not only set the “ cities and villages on fire, but were not satisfied till they “had been guilty of sacrilege, and destroyed the images os “ the gods, and used them in roasting of those sacred anis mals that used to be worshipped, and forced the priests " and prophets to be the executioners and murderers of of those animals, and then ejected them naked out of the “ country. It was also reported that the priest, who or- , “ dained their polity and their laws, was by birth of Helio66 polis, and his name Osarsiph from Osyris, who was the “god of Heliopolis ; but that, when he was gone over to $6 these people, his name was changed, and he was called 6 Moses."

27. This is what the Egyptians relate about the Jews, with much more, which I omit for the sake of brevity.-But still Manetho goes on, That, “after this Amenophis “ returned back from Ethiopia with a great army, as did “ his son Rhampses with another army also and that both so of them joined battle with the shepherds and the polluted "people, and beat them, and slew a great many of them, and “pursued them to the bounds of Syria." These and the like accounts are written by Manetho.-But I will demon.

strate that he trifes, and tells arrant lies, after I have made a distinction which will relate to what I am going to say about him: for this Manetho had granted and confessed that this nation was not originally Egyptian, but that they had come from another country, and subdued Egypt and then went away again out of it. But that those Egyptians who were thus diseased in their bodies were not mingled with us afterward, and that Moses, who brought the people out was not one of that company, but lived many generations earlier, I shall endeavour to demonstrate from Manetho's own accounts themselves.

28. Now, for the first occasion of this fiction, Manetho supposes what is no better than a ridiculous thing; for he says, That “king Amenophis desired to see the gods." What gods I pray did he desire to see ? If he meant the gods whom their laws ordained to be worshipped, the ox, the goat, the crocodile, and the baboon, he saw them already; but for the heavenly gods, how could he see them, and what should occasion this his desire ? To be sure,* it was because another king before him had already seen them. He had then been informed what sort of gods they were, and after what manner they had been seen, insomuch that he did not stand in need of any new artifice for obtain. ing this sight. However, this prophet by whose means the king thought to compass his design was a wise man. If so, how came he not to know that such his desire was impossible to be accomplished ? for the event did not succeed. And what pretence could there be to suppose, that the gods could not be seen by reason of the people's maims in their bodies, or leprosy ? for the gods are not angry at the imperfection of bodies, but at wicked practices : and as to eighty thousand lepers, and those in an ill state also, how is it possible to have them gathered together in one day ? nay, how came the king not to comply with the prophet ? for his injunction was, that those that were maimed should be expelled out of Egypt, while the king only sent them to work in the quarries, as if he were rather in want of labourers, than intended to purge his conntry. He says farther, that “this prophet slew himself, as foreseeing the an“ ger of the gods, and those events which were to come upvon Egypt afterward; and that he left this prediction for

* Cy. By Jupiter.

" the king in writing.” Besides, how came it to pass, that this prophet did not foreknow his own death at the first? nay, how came he not to contradict the king in his desire to see the gods immediately ? how came that unreasopable (lread upon him of judgments that were not to happen in his life-time ? or what worse thing could he suffer, out of the fear of which he made haste to kill himself? But now let us see the silliest thing of all : The king, although he had been informed of these things, and terrified with the fear of what was to come, yet did not he even then eject these maimed people out of his country; when it had been foretold him that he was to clear Egypt of them: but as Manetho says, “He then, upon their request, gave “ them that city to inhabit, which had formerly belong. “ed to the shepherds, and was called Avaris ; whither, " when they were gone in crowds," he says, “ Hiey chose “ one that had formerly been priest of Heliopolis, and that “ this priest first ordained, that they should neither wor“ ship the gods, nor abstain from those animals that were “ worshipped by the Egyptians, but should kill and eat " them all, and should associate with nobody but those " that had conspired with them; and that he bound the “ multitude by oaths to be sure to continue in those laws; “and that when he had built a wall about Avaris, he made “ war against the king.” Manetho adds also, That “ this “ priest sent to Jerusalem to invite that people to come to “his assistance, and promised to give them Avaris ; for " that it had belonged to the forefathers of those that “were coming from Jerusalem, and that when they were " come, they made a war immediately against the king, " and got possession of all Egypt.” He says also, That “ the Egyptians came with an army of two hundred thou“ sand men and that Amenophis the king of Egypt, not " thinking that he ought to fight against the gods ran away “ presently into Ethiopia, and committed Apis and certain “other of their sacred animals to the priests, and com"manded them to take care of preserving them.” He says farther, That “the people of Jerusalem came accordingly " upon the Egyptians, and overthrew their cities, and “ burnt their temples, and slew their horsemen, and in short “abstained from no sort of wickedness nor barbarity; and for " that priest who settled their polity and their laws,” he says, "he was by birth of Heliopolis, and his name was ** Osarsiph from Osyris the god of Heliopolis, but that he “ changed his name, and called himself Moses.He then says, That, “ on the thirteenth year afterward, Ameno“phis, according to the fatal time of the duration of his “ misfortunes, came upon them out of Ethiopia with a great 6 army, and joining battle with the shepherds and with “ the polluted people, overcame them in battle, and slew a “great many of them, and pursued them as far as the “ bounds of Syria.”

29. Now Manetho does not reflect upon the improbability of his lie : for the leprous people, and the multitude that was with them, although they might formerly have been angry at the king, and at those that had treated them so coarsely, and this according to the prediction of the prophet, yet certainly, when they were come out of the mines, and had received of the king a city, apd a country, they would have grown milder towards him. However, had they ever so niuch hated him in particular, they might have laid a private plot against himself, but would hardly have made war against ail the Egyptians ; I mean this on the account of the great kindred they, who were so numerous, must have had among them. Nay, still, if they had resolved to fight with the men, they would not have had impudence enough to fight with their gods ; nor would they bave ordained laws quite contrary to those of their own country, and to those in which they had been bred up themselves. Yet are we beholden to Manetho, that he does not lay the principal charge of this horrid transgression upon those that came from Jerusalem, but says that the Egyptians themselves were the most guilty, and that they were their priests that contrived these things, and made the multitude take their oaths for doing so. But still, how absurd is it to suppose, that none of these people's own relations or friends should be prevailed with to revolt, not to undergo the hazards of war with them ? while these polluted people were forced to send to Jerusalem, and bring their auxilaries from thence. What friendship, I pray, or what relation was there formerly between them, that required this assistance ? On the contrary, these people were enemies, and greatly differed from them in their customs. He says indeed, that they complied immediately, upon their promising them that they should conquer Egypt; as if they did not themselves very well know the country out of which they

VOL. VII.

had been driven by force. Now, had these men been in want, or lived miserably, perhaps they might have undertaken so hazardous an enterprise, but, as they dwelt in an happy city, and had a large country, and one better than Egypt itself, how came it about, that for the sake of those that had of old been their enemies, of those that were maimed in their bodies, and of those whom none of their own relations would endure, they should run such hazards in assisting them? For they could not foresee that the king would runaway from them; on the contrary he saith himself, That “ Amenophis's son had three hundred thousand “ men with him, and met them at Pelusium.” Now, to be sure, those that came could not be ignorant of this ; but for the king's repentance and flight, how could they possibly guess at it? He then says, That “those who came from “Jerusalem, and made this invasion, got the granaries of “Egypt into their possession, and perpetrated many of “ the most horrid actions there.” And thence he reproaches them, as though he had not himself introduced them as enemies, or as though he might accuse such as were invited from another place for so doing, when the natural Egyptians themselves had done the same things before their coining, and had taken oaths so to do. However, “ Amenophis, some time afterward, came upon them, "and conquered them in battle, and slew his enemies, and “ drove them before him as far as Syria:” As if Egypt were so easily taken by people that came from any place whatsoever, and as if those that had conquered it by war, when they were informed that Amenophis was alive, did neither fortify the avenues out of Ethiopia into it, although they had great advantages for doing it, nor did get their other forces ready for their defence; but that “he follow“ed them over the sandy desert, and slew them as far as “ Syria;" while yet it is not an easy thing for an army to pass over that country, even without fighting.

30. Our nation, therefore according to Manetho, was not derived from Egypt, nor, were any of the Egyptians mingled with us. For it is to be supposed, that many of the leprous and distempered people were dead in the mines, since they had been there a long time, and in so ill a condition ; many others must be dead in the battles that happened afterwards, and more still in the last battle and flight after it.

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