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nation he was, and what parents he was derived from ; and to have assigned the reasons why he undertook to make such laws concerning the gods, and concerning matters of injustice with regard to men during that journey. For, in case the people were by birth Egyptians, they would not on the sudden have so easily changed the customs of their country: and in case they had been foreigners, they had, for certain, some laws or other, which had been kept by them from long custom. It is true, that with regard to those who had ejected them, they might have sworn never to bear good will to them, and might have had a plausible reason for so doing. But if these men resolved to wage an implacable war against all men, in case they had acted as wickedly as he relates of them, and this while they wanted the assistance of all men, this demonstrates a kind of mad conduct indeed ; but not of the men themselves, but very greatly so of him that tells such lies about them. He hath also impudence enough to say, that a name implying robbers * of the temples was given to their city, and that this name was afterward changed. The reason of which is plain, that the former name brought reproach and hatred upon them in the times of their posterity, while it seems, those that built the city thought they did honour to the city by giving it such a name. So we see that this fine fellow had such an unbounded inclination to reproach us, that he did not understand the robbery of temples is not expressed by the same word and name among the Jews, as it is among the Greeks. But why should a man say any more to a person who tells such impudent lies ? However, since this book is arisen to a competent length, I will make another beginning, and endeavour to add what still remains to perfect my design in the following book.

* This is the meaning of Hierosyla in Greek, not in Hebrew.

BOOK II.

§ 1. In the former book, most honoured Epaphroditns, I have demonstrated our antiquity, and confirmed the truth of what I have said from the writings of the Phenicians and Chaldeans, and Egyptians. I have moreover produced many of the Grecian writers as witnesses thereto. I have also made a refutation of Manetho and Cheremon, and of certain others of our enemies. I shall now,* therefore, bring a confutation of the remaining authors who have writen any thing against us ; although, I confess, I have had a doubt upon me about A pion † the grammarian, whether I ought to take the trouble of confuting him or not, for some of his writings contain much the same accusations which the others have laid against us, some things that he hath added are very frigid and contemptible, and for the greatest part of what he says, it is very scurrilous, and to speak no more than the plain truth, it shews him to be a very unlearned person, and what he lays together, looks like the work of a man of very bad miorals and of one no better in his whole life than a mountebank. Yet because there are a great many men so very foolish, that they are rather caught by such orations than by what is written with care, and take pleasure in reproaching other men, and cannot abide to hear tliem commended, I thought it to be necessary not to let this man go off without examination, who had written such an accusation against us, as if he would bring us to make an answer in open court. For I also have observed, that many men are very much delighted, when they see a man, who first began to reproach another, to be himslf exposed to contempt

* The former part of this second book is written againsi the caluninies of Apion, and then, more briefly, against the like calumnies of Apollonius Molo. But after that, Josephus leaves off any more particular reply to those adversaries of the Jews, and gives us a large and excellent description and vindication of that theocracy which was settled for the Jewish nation by Mo? ses, their great legislator."

+ Çailed by Tiberius, Cymbalum Mundi, the drum of the world.

on account of the vices he hath himself been guilty of. However, it is not a very easy thing to go over this man's discourse, nor to know plainly what he means, yet does he seem amidst a great confusion and disorder in his falsehoods to produce in the first place, such things as resemble what we have examined already, and relate to the departure of our forefathers out of Egypt: and, in the second place, he accuses those Jews that are inhabitants of Alexandria, as, in the third place, he mixes with those things such accusations as concern the sacred purifications, with the other legal rites used in the temple.

2. Now, although I cannot but think that I have already demonstrated, and that abundantly more than was necessary, that our fathers were not originally Egyptians, nor were thence expelled, either on account of bodily diseases, or any other calamities of that sort ; yet will I briefly take notice of what Apion adds upon that subject; for in his third book which relates to the affairs of Egypt, he speaks thus: “I have heard of the apcient men of Egypt, that 66 Moses was of Heliopolis, and that he thought himself obeliged to follow the customs of his forefathers, and offered “bis prayers in the open air towards the city walls; but “that he reduced them all to be directed towards sun“ rising, which was agreeable to the situation of Heliopolis : 6 that he also set up pillars instead of gnomons,* under “ which was represented a cavity like that of a boat, and - the shadow that fell from their tops fell down upon that ca“vity, that it might go round about the like course as " the sun itself goes round in the other.” This is that wonderful relation which we have given us by this grammarian. But that it is a false one is so plain, that it stands in need of few words to prove it, but is manifest from the works of Moses : for when he erected the first tabernacle to God he did himself neither give order for any such a kind of representation to be made at it, nor ordain that those that came after him should make such an one. Moreover, when, in a future age, Solomon built his temple in Jerusalem, he avoided all such needless decorations as a pion hath here devised. He says father, “How he had heard of the

* This seems to have been the first dial that had been made in Egypt, and was a little before the time that Ahaz made his (6rst) dial in Judea, and about apno 755, in the first year of the seventeenth Olympiad, as we shall obe presently. See 2 Kings xx. 11. Isaiah xxxviii. 8,

“ ancient men, that Moses was of Heliopolis.” To be sure that was because being a younger man himself, he believed those that by their elder age were acquainted and conversed with him! Now this grammarian as he was, could not certainly tell which was the poet Homer's country, no more than he could which was the country of Pythagoras, who lived comparatively but a little while ago; yet does he thus easily determine the age of Moses, who preceded them such a vast number of years, as depending on his ancient men's relation, which shews how notorious a liar he was. But then as to this chronological determination of the time when he says he brought the leprous people, the blind and the lame out of Egypt, see how well this most accurate grammarian of ours agrees with those that have written before him. Manetho says, that the Jews departed out of Egypt in the reign of 'Tethmosis. three hundred ninety-three years before Danaus fied to Argos ; Lysimachus says it was under king Bocchoris, that is, one thousand seven hundred years ago; Molo and some others determined it as every one pleased : but this Apion of ours, as deserving to be believed before them, hath determined it exactly to have been in the seventh 0. lympiad, and the first year of that Olympiad ; the very same year in which he says that Carthage was built by the Phenicians. The reason why he added this building of Carthage was, to be sure in order, as he thought, to strengthen his assertion by so evident a character of chronology. But he was not aware, that this character confutes his assertion; for if we may give credit to the Phenician records as to the time of the first coming of their colony to Carthage, they relate, that Hirom their king was above an hundred and fifty years earlier than the building of Carthage, concerning whom I have formerly produced testimonials out of those Phenician records, as also that this Hirom was a friend of Solomon when he was building the temple at Jerusalem, and gave him great assistance in his building that temple : while still Solomon himself built that temple six hundred and twelve years after the Jews came out of Egypt. As for the number of those that were expelled out of Egypt, he hath contrived to have the very same number with Lysimachus, and says they were an hundred and ten thousand. He then assigns à certain wonderful and plausible occasion for the name of Sabbath ; for he says, That " when the * Jews had travelled a six days journey, they had buboes “ in their groins; and that on this account it was that they “ rested on the seventh day, as having got safely to that “ country which is now called Judea ; that then they pre66 served the language of the Egyptians, and called that day * the Sabbath ; for that malady of buboes on their groin 6 was named Sabatosis by the Egyptians.” And would not a man now laugh at this fellow's trilling, or rather hate his impudence in writing thus ? We must it seems; take it for granted that all these hundred and ten thousand men must have these buboes. But for certain, if those men had been blind and - lame, and had all sorts of distempers upon them, as Apion says they had, they could not have gone che single day's journey : but if they had been all able to travel over a large desert, and besides that to fight and conquer those that opposed them they had not all of them had buboes on their groins after the sixth day was over; for no such distemper comes naturally and of necessity upon those that travel ; but still, when there are many ten thousands in a camp together they constantly march a settled pace sin a day.j Nor is it at all probable that such a thing should happen by chance : this would be prodigiously absurd to be supposed. How. ever, our admirable author Apion had before told us, That “ó they came to Judea in six days time ;” and again, That “ Moses weat up to a mountain that lay between Egypt and “ Arabia, which was called Sinai, and was concealed there « forty days, and that when he came down from thence, he “gave laws to the Jews.” But then, how was it possible for them to tarry forty days in a desert place, where there was no water, and at the same time to pass all over the country between that and Judea in the six days ? And as for this grammatical translation of the word Sabbath, it either contains an instance of his great impudence or gross ignorance; for the words Sabbo and Sabbath are widely different from one another; for the word Sabbath in the Jewish language denotes rest from all sorts of work; but the word Sabbo, as he affirms, denotes among the Egyptians the inalady of a bubo in the groin.

3. This is that novel account which the Egyptian Apion gives us concerning the Jews' departure out of Egypt, and is no better than a contrivance of his ow]).-But why should we wonder at the lies he tells about our forefathers,

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